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Mannerism

Term used in the study of the visual arts (and by transference in the study of literature and music) with a confusing variety of critical and historical meanings. Even more than with most ...

Mannerism

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Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
124 words

... Together with ‘ Baroque’ and ‘ Gothic ’, ‘ Mannerism ’ is one of the most carelessly applied terms used to characterize architectural movements, buildings, or details of buildings. It is a product of the formalist approach adopted by German historians, such as Wölfflin, at the end of the 19th century. More carefully defined, it does not mean simply ‘distorted’, ‘disproportional’ or ‘abnormal’, but the conscious distortion of elements of Classicism to achieve a bizarre effect or to make a learned witticism. On this strict definition, the term only...

Mannerism

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,516 words

...1955 (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). Dvořák, M. , ‘On El Greco and Mannerism’, trans. J. Hardy , in M. Dvořák , The History of Art as the History of Ideas (1984; German original 1921). Friedlaender, W. , Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting (1957; German original 1925). Pevsner, N. , ‘The Counter Reformation and Mannerism’, in Studies in Art, Architecture and Design , 1: From Mannerism to Romanticism, (1968; German original 1925). Shearman, J. , Mannerism (1967). Smyth, C. H. , Mannerism and Maniera (2nd edn., 1992). Weise, G. , ‘La doppia...

mannerism

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
441 words

... Heinrich Wölfflin , Mannerism was tainted with the notion of degeneracy, and represented a decline from the standards achieved by Raphael . A subsequent generation of German historians, led by Max Dvorák , portrayed Mannerism as a European movement that began with late Michelangelo and culminated in the religious vision of El Greco . In the second quarter of the twentieth century, nationalist historians attempted to reclaim Mannerism for Germany by representing it as a revival of the Gothic spirit. The notion of a repudiation of the ideals of Raphael and...

mannerism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... A vague term for the self-conscious cultivation of peculiarities of style—usually elaborate, ingenious, and ornate—in literary works of any period. Like the baroque , with which it often overlaps, mannerism is a concept more clearly defined in art history than in literary studies: art historians have marked out a Mannerist period (roughly 1520–1610 ) between the High Renaissance and the Baroque, characterized by distortions of figure and perspective. Clear equivalents in English literature of this period would be the mannered style of euphuism and...

mannerism

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
50 words

... Term generally applied to the art and architecture of Italy between the High Renaissance and the Baroque . The style is typified by Parmigiano , Pontormo and Giovanni Lanfranco . Some theorists include El Greco , the Fontainebleau school or the Romanist painters of the Netherlands. The term implies a courtly, self-conscious...

Mannerism

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A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
180 words

... C16 style of architecture from the period of Michelangelo identified by the employment of Classical elements in a strange or abnormal way ( see abuse ), or out of context, such as slipping triglyphs or keystones, columns inserted in deep apertures in walls and seemingly supported on consoles , and distortion of aedicules and other features, as in Giulio Romano’s buildings in Mantua or Michelangelo ’s work at San Lorenzo , Florence. In Northern Europe the works carried out by the School of Fontainebleau contributed to a peculiarly...

Mannerism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
675 words

... Term used in the study of the visual arts (and by transference in the study of literature and music) with a confusing variety of critical and historical meanings. Even more than with most stylistic labels, there is little agreement amongst scholars as to its delimitations, and John Shearman begins his book on the subject ( Mannerism , 1967 ) with the frank admission: ‘This book will have at least one feature in common with all those already published on Mannerism; it will appear to describe something quite different from what all the rest describe.’...

mannerism

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
100 words

... A term used to describe any stylistic habit that becomes exaggerated or is carried to excess, but more specifically applied to the style of Italian art of c. 1520– c. 1600 , between the High Renaissance and the baroque, in which powerful and disturbing effects are achieved by distorted or elongated figures, violent perspective, and unexpected colour harmonies. In literature, the term is applied to a variety of poetic styles involving far-fetched conceits, as with the Elizabethan sonneteers and the metaphysical poets , and to some unusual prose styles...

Mannerism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
682 words

... . Term used in the study of the visual arts (and by transference in the study of literature and music) with a confusing variety of critical and historical meanings. Even more than with most stylistic labels, there is little agreement amongst scholars as to its delimitations, and John Shearman begins his book on the subject ( Mannerism , 1967 ) with the frank admission: ‘This book will have at least one feature in common with all those already published on Mannerism; it will appear to describe something quite different from what all the rest...

Mannerism

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,498 words

... . Name given to the stylistic phase in the art of Europe between the High Renaissance and the Baroque, covering the period from c. 1510–20 to 1600 ; it is also sometimes referred to as late Renaissance. Although 16th-century artists took the formal vocabulary of the High Renaissance as their point of departure, they used it in ways that were diametrically opposed to the harmonious ideal it originally served. There are thus good grounds for considering Mannerism as a valid and autonomous stylistic phase, a status first claimed for it by art...

Mannerism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,341 words

... Broadly, the term defines an artistic phase between the High Renaissance and Baroque periods that is characterized by significant deviations from the principles of the classical tradition, signalling the end of the Renaissance. First developed in Italy, the style associated with Mannerism also influenced artistic developments further afield, in France, Spain, and Northern Europe. The precise dating of Mannerism has been disputed by historians, but generally it is considered to have emerged around 1520 (the year of Raphael’s death) and declined at the...

Mannerism

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
270 words

...connotations of the term: a sonnet of 1442 listing maniera among the heaven-sent gifts of Pisanello, Vasari ( 1552 ) including it as one of the five qualities which made his century, the 16th, superior to the preceding one. Although ‘Mannerism’ is mainly applied to Italian art, there was also ‘Northern Mannerism’, used to describe the work of north European artists such as Goltzius, Uytewael, and Spranger active in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, whose twisting, intricate compositions reached a large audience through the highly accomplished...

Mannerism

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Denis Arnold and Tim Carter

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
149 words

...Mannerism . A term most often used with reference to the visual arts, to describe the extravagant subjects, contorted gestures, and virtuoso effects of certain 16th- and 17th-century painters, for example Giulio Romano and Caravaggio . It has also been applied to literature (where it becomes linked with the poet Marino ) and, more recently, to music. Here it is reckoned to account for certain stylistic traits distinguishable from the High Renaissance and the Baroque. It is quite apt when used to describe the works of late 16th-century ‘avant-garde’...

Mannerism

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
195 words

... . A term used to indicate art understood less as the expression of a substantive content of thought or emotion than as a demonstration of the artist's inventiveness in creating variations on a received norm—which may themselves become clichés and so compose from individual ‘manners’ a period style. A mannerist art usually arises from the exploitation of suggestions already present in a preceding organic or ‘classical’ phase, and answers a social (usually courtly) need for decoration or entertainment. The term is applied primarily to the late‐Renaissance...

Mannerism

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D. Marno

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,003 words

...Friedlaender), Hauser’s Mannerism claimed to see in mannerism an authentic artistic expression of the social, economic, and spiritual crisis of the 16th and early 17th cs., thus effectively establishing mannerism as an artistic response to the onset of modernity. In response, Smyth in “Mannerism and Maniera” and Shearman in Mannerism challenged Hauser’s “anxiety-mannerism” and introduced the notion of mannerism as a “stylish style.” Smyth and Shearman contended that, while Hauser’s theory of mannerism was essentially a projection of modernist...

Mannerism

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
290 words

...Chapel ceiling ( 1508–12 ). Another, often bizarre, though always graceful strand of Mannerism originated in Florence, notably in the work of Iacopo da Pontormo ( 1494–1556 ) and Rosso Fiorentino ( 1494–1540 ). A second generation of Mannerists, including Vasari and Francesco Salviati ( 1510–63 ), succeeded in fusing these strands into a highly complex illusionistic style. Through the travels of Mannerist artists, as well as the dissemination of engravings, Mannerism spread rapidly to the courts of Europe. In the 1580s the style came increasingly to...

Artisan Mannerism

Artisan Mannerism (1623)   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
57 words

...Mannerism A form of Mannerism , succeeding the flamboyant Jacobean style, that craftsmen adopted in London (Leathersellers’ Hall, 1623 , demolished), and later elsewhere (Dutch House, Kew, 1631 , and Broome Park, Kent, 1635–8 ). Less sophisticated than Inigo Jones ’s learned classical, it relied on bold rustication, prominent columns or pilasters, swaggering gables and heavy cornices. Anthony...

Antwerp Mannerism

Antwerp Mannerism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
64 words

...Mannerism A term coined by the art historian Max Friedländer in 1915 to describe the style of painting practised by artists in Antwerp from c .1500 to 1530 . It was essentially a late Gothic style and depicted religious subjects, though in its depiction of architecture it also displayed borrowings from the Italian Renaissance . Its most celebrated practitioner was Jan de Beer...

Artisan Mannerism

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
56 words

...Mannerism A term coined by Sir John Summerson to describe architectural features on small or medium‐sized houses in the mid‐ and late 17th century, which were taken from foreign pattern books and applied without any real understanding of the principles of Renaissance architecture by local builders. These included door surrounds, pediments over windows, pilasters,...

Antwerp Mannerism

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,529 words

...Mannerism. Despite its name, Antwerp Mannerism is unrelated to Italian or later Flemish Mannerism; its mannerism, instead, is an expression of Late Gothic art. A work such as the Beheading of St John the Baptist , attributed by Friedländer to Pseudo-Bles, exemplifies the main features of the style: histrionic figural groupings, flamboyant costumes, elegant chromatic effects, technical virtuosity and fantastical architecture freely combining Gothic and Renaissance elements. Decorative invention is the keynote. Another characteristic of Antwerp Mannerism is...

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