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Ludwig Boltzmann

(1844–1906) Austrian physicist and philosopher of science. Boltzmann sought to integrate physics with the philosophy of science, opposing both the a priori, uninformed ...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...Boltzmann, Ludwig ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian physicist who pioneered statistical mechanics and gave the modern definition of...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
119 words

..., Ludwig ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian physicist , acclaimed for his contribution to statistical mechanics and to the kinetic theory of gases. His research extended the ideas of James Maxwell . Boltzmann's general law asserts that a system will approach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium because that is the most probable state. He introduced the ‘Boltzmann equation’ ( 1877 ) relating the kinetic energy of a gas atom or molecule to temperature. Symbol K in the formula, the gas constant per molecule, is called the ‘Boltzmann constant’. In 1884 he...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
117 words

..., Ludwig ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian physicist and philosopher of science . Boltzmann sought to integrate physics with the philosophy of science, opposing both the a priori, uninformed speculations of philosophers, and the philosophically indifferent approaches of many physicists. His emphasis on the open-ended hypothetical nature of theorizing strikingly anticipates the falsificationism of Popper , whilst his connection between the direction of time and the increasing entropy of a universe in which some states can be achieved in more ways than...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig   Reference library

Lawrence Sklar

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
154 words

..., Ludwig ( 1844–1906 ). As philosopher of science Boltzmann emphasized, against the positivist phenomenalists ( Mach , Duhem ), the role of invented hypotheses and the importance of posited unobservable theoretical entities and properties. He defended atomism in a period in which it was under sceptical attack. Along with J. C. Maxwell he is the inventor of modern statistical mechanics, his contributions including the Boltzmann equation, the H -theorem allegedly proving irreversible approach to equilibrium, and the ergodic hypothesis. His was also...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
847 words

...him caused him to take his own life in October 1906 , while on vacation with his family at the Bay of Duino, a resort near Trieste. Engelbert Broda , Ludwig Boltzmann: Man, Physicist, Philosopher (1983). John Blackmore , ed., Ludwig Boltzmann, His Later Life and Philosophy, 1900–1906 , 2 vols. (1995). Carlo Cercignani , Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms (1998). David Lindley , Boltzmann's Atom: The Great Debate That Launched a Revolution in Physics (2001). Manolis...

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
48 words

...0Ludwig Ludwig Boltzmann 1844 – 1906 Austrian physicist I adhered scrupulously to the precept of that brilliant theoretical physicist L. Boltzmann, according to whom matters of elegance ought to be left to the tailor and to the cobbler. attributed; Albert Einstein Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1916)...

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
64 words

...0Ludwig Ludwig Boltzmann 1844 – 1906 Austrian physicist I adhered scrupulously to the precept of that brilliant theoretical physicist L. Boltzmann, according to whom matters of elegance ought to be left to the tailor and to the cobbler. attributed; Albert Einstein Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1916) preface; see also koestler matters of elegance tailor and to the cobbler tailor and to the ...

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
801 words

...Ludwig Boltzmann 1844 – 1906 Austrian physicist We must make the following remark: a proof, that after a certain time t 1 the spheres must necessarily be mixed uniformly, whatever may be the initial distribution of states, cannot be given. This is in fact a consequence of probability theory, for any non-uniform distribution of states, no matter how improbable it may be, is still not absolutely impossible. Indeed it is clear that any individual uniform distribution, which might arise after a certain time from some particular initial state, is just as...

Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard

Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard (1844–1906)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
49 words

..., Ludwig Eduard ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian physicist . He held professorships in Graz, Vienna, Munich, and Leipzig, where he worked on the kinetic theory of gases ( see Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution ) and on statistical mechanics ( see Boltzmann equation ). He suffered from depression and committed...

Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard

Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard (1844–1906)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
62 words

...Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian physicist . He held professorships in Graz, Vienna, Munich, and Leipzig, where he worked on the kinetic theory of gases ( see Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution ) and on thermodynamics ( see Boltzmann equation ). In particular, he showed that entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system. He suffered from depression and committed...

Boltzmann, Ludwig Edward

Boltzmann, Ludwig Edward   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
291 words

..., Ludwig Edward (1844–1906) Austrian theoretical physicist Boltzmann studied at the university in his native city of Vienna, where he received his doctorate in 1866 . He held professorships in physics or mathematics at Graz ( 1869–73 ; 1876–79 ), Vienna ( 1873–76 ; 1894–1900 ; 1902–06 ), Munich ( 1889–93 ), and Leipzig ( 1900–02 ). Boltzmann made important contributions to the kinetic theory of gases. He developed the law of equipartition of energy, which states that the total energy of an atom or molecule is, on average, equally distributed over...

Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
22 words
Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
46 words
Boltzmann, Ludwig

Boltzmann, Ludwig   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
44 words
Boltzmann, Ludwig Edward

Boltzmann, Ludwig Edward (1844–1906)   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Ludwig Edward ( 1844–1906 ) Austrian theoretical physicist . * Boltzmann constant Boltzmann distribution Use Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (en dash). Boltzmann equation Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (en dash) * Stefan–Boltzmann constant (en dash) Stefan–Boltzmann law (en...

Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Boltzmann  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1844–1906)Austrian physicist and philosopher of science. Boltzmann sought to integrate physics with the philosophy of science, opposing both the a priori, uninformed speculations of philosophers, ...
Boltzmann formula

Boltzmann formula  

An equation concerning the entropy S of a system that derives from statistical mechanics. It states that entropy is related to the number W of distinguishable ways in which the equation S = k lnW, ...
Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution  

A law describing the distribution of speeds among the molecules of a gas. In a system consisting of N molecules that are independent of each other except that they exchange energy on collision, it is ...
Boltzmann equation

Boltzmann equation  

An equation used in the study of a collection of particles in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, particularly their transport properties. The Boltzmann equation describes a quantity called the ...
energeticism

energeticism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The physical view that energy is the fundamental element in all physical change. It was propounded by the chemist Wilhelm Ostwald (1853–1932), but rebutted by Ludwig Boltzmann and Max Plank.

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