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Lombards

A member of a Germanic people who invaded Italy in the 6th century, and who settled in what became Lombardy. The name of this people comes from Italian lombardo, representing late Latin ...

Lombards

Lombards   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
62 words

... Germanic peoples who inhabited the area e of the lower River Elbe until driven w by the Romans in ad 9 . In 568 , they invaded n Italy under Alboin and conquered much of the country, adopting Catholicism and Latin customs. The Lombard kingdom reached its peak under Liutprand ( d.744 ). It went into decline after defeat by the Franks under Charlemagne ( 775...

Lombards

Lombards   Reference library

Neil Christie

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Italy. The Lombards were also engaged in countering the potential threat presented by the Gepids on the Danube and Lombard soldiers also fought in the Byzantine armies in Italy. Various Lombard chiefs became imperial officers, serving in the Balkans and even on the Persian frontier . Procopius claims that Justinian’s Lombard allies were Christian and Catholic during the 540s, although later kings continued to profess Homoean ( Arian ) Christianity into the 7th century . Settlement in Italy The fullest documentation of the subsequent Lombard occupation of...

Lombards

Lombards ([CP])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
71 words

... ( Lombard ) [CP] Germanic people who migrated southwards to occupy the Hungarian plains during the 6th century. Pressure from the Avars caused them to move westwards, and in ad 568 they invaded Italy and established a kingdom in the Po Valley, with virtually independent duchies in the south. The northern kingdom was annexed by Charlemagne but the duchies survived until the Norman conquest of the mid 11th century ad...

Lombards

Lombards   Reference library

Thomas S. Brown

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
392 words

...of first Salerno and later Capua . An appeal by the Lombards of Bari for aid against the Arabs in 876 helped Byz. to conquer much of Apulia by ca. 891 . The absorption of the Lombard principalities into the Byz. sphere of influence was reflected in gifts to rulers and monasteries, grants of titles, and the spread of Byz. artistic and cultural influences. Lombard cities flourished, in part, as a result of Byz. economic ties and a general toleration of the Latin church. In the 11th C., however, Lombard discontent facilitated infiltration by the Normans ...

Lombards

Lombards   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...claims over the Lombard conquests in Emilia, at the borders of the Exarchate , in Umbria . A people of few numbers since their mythical origins, the Lombards of the kingdom were finally subjected by the Franks; Pippin the Short took away their territories to constitute the Papal State, and Charlemagne conquered them in 774 . The Visitation . Altar of the Lombard king Rachis (detail), 8th c. Cividale del Friuli, cathedral treasury. M. Brozzi , C. Calderini , M. and M. Rotili , I Longobardi , Milan, 1980; Fr. tr. Les Lombards, Saint-Léger-Vauban...

Lombards

Lombards   Reference library

L. Michael Whitby

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
131 words

... , or Langobardi , a Germanic group, described by Tacitus as few but courageous ( Germ . 40). In the 1st cent. ad they lived along the lower Elbe, but by the 160s they were threatening the upper Danube frontier. After being subsumed into the Hun federation ( c. 400 ), victory over the Heruli ( c. 500 ) re-established Lombard independence and gave them control over Pannonia; they had by now adopted Arian Christianity ( see arianism ). They served Justinian as allies of variable reliability and savage and unruly warriors. In 568 , frightened of...

Lombards

Lombards  

A member of a Germanic people who invaded Italy in the 6th century, and who settled in what became Lombardy. The name of this people comes from Italian lombardo, representing late Latin Langobardus, ...
Lombard

Lombard   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
62 words

... Lombard all Lombard Street to a China orange great wealth against one ordinary object; virtual certainty. dated 🅘 Lombard Street in London was originally occupied by bankers from Lombardy, and it still contains a number of London’s principal banks. This idiom dates from the early 19th...

Lombard

Lombard   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
91 words

... 1881: 93; scattered: especially Warwicks. 1 English, Irish: ethnic name, relationship name from Middle English Lombard , Lumbard , for someone from Lombardy in northern Italy. In the Middle Ages Lombard immigrants were mostly moneylenders and bankers, hence the surname may sometimes mean or imply ‘banker’. Lombards came directly to Ireland in the 13th century. The ethnic name is from the Continental Germanic for ‘long-beard’. It was also occasionally used as a given name. 2 French, English: relationship name from the Old French personal name Lambert ...

Lombard

Lombard   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... A banker or moneylender. In medieval London, Lombard Street became the home of Lombards and other Italian merchants who set up as goldsmiths, moneylenders and bankers. From the 13th century they flourished as pawnbrokers and the three golden balls of the pawnshop are said to be taken from the armorial bearings of the medici of Florence. This merchant, who was wary and discreet, Soon managed to negotiate his loan; The bond that he had signed became his own For he paid down the money to a franc To certain Lombards at their Paris Bank. All Lombard...

Lombard

Lombard   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names of Ireland

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Thomas Lumbard, merchant, 1563 in Fiants Elizabeth §552 (Waterford); Anne Lombard, 1573 in Fiants Elizabeth §2278 (Waterford); James Lombarde fitz John, 1576 in Fiants Elizabeth §2941 (Corke [Cork]); James Lombarde, gent., 1586 in Fiants Elizabeth §4826 (Buttevant, Cork); Ellice Lombard, 1601 in Fiants Elizabeth §6465 (Cork); James oge Lombard, merchant, 1615 in Irish Patent Rolls p. 285 (Cork city, Cork); James Lombard, 1669 in ASE p. 170 (Cork); Nicholas Lombard, 1796 in Flaxgrowers List (Island, Cork). Further information: This surname is...

Lombard

Lombard   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,012 words

... ( Lombards, Lombardi ) One of the peoples who convulsed the later *Roman Empire and created a kingdom in *Italy that lasted from 568 to 774 . ‘ Lombard ’ has also been used, down to the present, to refer to the inhabitants of northern Italy or the region (Lombardy) and to refer to Italians who settled in northern European cities 1200–1500 to practise commerce and *banking . 1. Legendary prehistory 2. Late antiquity and the early MA 3. Lombard weaknesses and strengths 1. Legendary prehistory In legend the Lombards crossed the *Baltic from...

Lombard

Lombard   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
143 words

... US frequency (2010): 5873 1 French and English: ethnic name for someone from Lombardy in Italy (in France also for someone from other regions in northern Italy; compare Litalien ). Lombardy is named for the ancient Germanic tribe which overran the area in the 6th century ad . Their name is attested only in the Latinized form Langobardi , but is clearly an ancient Germanic name meaning ‘long beards’. Early immigrants from Lombardy to London were often involved in banking and moneylending, and the name came to be used from the 14th century onward as a...

Lombard, Peter

Lombard, Peter (1095/1100–1160)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
54 words

..., Peter ( 1095/1100–1160 ) Italian theologian . Lombard’s importance in scholastic thought derives from his four books making up the Book of Sentences , composed between 1145 and 1151 . These treat of matters such as predestination, God’s relationship to creation, free will, and so forth, and were the frequent topic of commentaries by subsequent...

Lombard Street

Lombard Street   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
45 words

... Street The street in the City of London that is the traditional centre of the money market . Many commercial banks have offices in or near Lombard Street, as do many bill brokers and discount houses. The Bank of England is round the...

Lombard Street

Lombard Street   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Street The street in the City of London that is the traditional centre of the money market . Many commercial banks have offices in or near Lombard Street, as do many bill brokers and discount houses. The Bank of England is round the...

Lombard Street

Lombard Street   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
45 words

... Street The street in the City of London that is the traditional centre of the money market . Many commercial banks have offices in or near Lombard Street, as do many bill brokers and discount houses. The Bank of England is round the...

Lombard style

Lombard style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
18 words

... style Architecture of the Romanesque period in northern Italy. It was revived in the 19th...

Lombard rate

Lombard rate (Germany)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... rate (Germany) . The rate of interest charged on a collateralized loan by the Bundesbank . The Lombard rate is usually about 0.5%, or so, above the Bundesbank's discount rate . Banks prefer to borrow at the Lombard rate rather than make use of the discount facility because the latter is (informally) rationed by the Bundesbank and frequent use will cause the Bundesbank to investigate ( cf. moral suasion ). The term Lombard comes from the Italian family of the Lombardi, who at the end of the Middle Ages were one of the first international bankers....

law, Lombard

law, Lombard   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
95 words

...Lombard In 643 King Rhotari issued the first written Lombard law, which various successors supplemented. In the 11th century it was united with *Carolingian *capitularies and statutes of the German emperors. The Lombard capital, *Pavia , was a major centre of legal expertise until the 11th century, but elsewhere it was later *glossed , commented upon, and used for much longer. Gianluca Raccagni C. Azzara and S. Gasparri , eds, Le leggi dei Longobardi: Storia, memoria e diritto di un popolo germanico ( 2 2005). M. Radding , The Origins of...

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