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Lithuania

[To survey traditional and theatrical dance in the republic of Lithuania, this entry comprises two articles. The first article discusses the history of traditional dance; the second ...

Lithuania

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

......

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Lithuania Physical map Political map...

Lithuania

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Theodore R. Weeks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
654 words

... . Lithuania is the largest of the Baltic States; it covers an area of about 25,100 square miles (65,000 square kilometers), just smaller than the U.S. state of West Virginia, and in 2005 it had a population of 3.5 million. Lithuania borders Latvia to the north, Russia and Belarus to the east, and Poland to the south. The Baltic Sea lies to the west. Before 1939 a diverse population of Jews, Poles, Belarusians, Russians, and Lithuanians inhabited this region, but in 2000 the great majority (over 80 percent) of Lithuanian citizens were of Lithuanian...

Lithuania

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
122 words

... or (Lithuanian) Lietuva . . In the late fourteenth century the Lithuanian people controlled a large tract of land between Poland and Russia, and retained their traditional pagan religion. In 1386 Grand Duke Jagiełło converted the duchy to Christianity and married Jadwiga , queen of Poland, whereupon he assumed the throne of Poland as King Vladislav II . The marriage created a dynastic link between Lithuania and Poland. In 1501 Grand Duke Alexander of Lithuania succeeded his brother John Albert as king of Poland, and he and his successors...

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and dynastically with Poland in 1385 ; by 1392 its borders stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. The deeply divided Lithuanian tribes were united into a nation in 1231 under Grand Duke Mindaugas (?–1263) who became king in 1253 . Given the present size of Lithuania, the connection between it, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is slight. The meaning of the name is not known, although it has been suggested that it may be derived from the Latin litus ‘shore’, a reference...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
639 words
Illustration(s):
1

...its tributaries. Economy Lithuania is agriculturally self‐sufficient, specializing in meat and milk production, but it depends on imports for supplies of energy and raw materials. There is some electricity production, but Lithuania relies on the unified grid of the Baltic region for much of its electricity supply. Mineral resources are varied, including various chemicals, iron ore, and oil. Lithuania’s main industries are machinery, consumer appliances, oil refining, and shipbuilding. Tourism is of growing importance. History Lithuania was a vast grand‐duchy...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
762 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in the 18th century and, by 1795 , Lithuania was under Russian control. Despite rebellions, Lithuania failed to regain its independence. In 1905 a conference of elected representatives called for self-government, Russia refused. German troops occupied Lithuania during World War 1 and, in February 1918 , Lithuania declared its independence from Germany and Russia. Russia briefly regained control, but retreated in 1919 . Lithuania established a democratic form of government, and in 1920 Russia and Lithuania signed a peace treaty. Poland occupied...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
498 words

... (pre-union) A grand duchy, it neighboured Prussia, *Livonia , *Poland , and the former Kievan *Rus’ and consisted of the lands of Lithuania and Samogitia and the Ruthenian principalities. First mentioned in 1009 , Lithuania was consolidated under *Mindaugas within the territory between the rivers Nemunas and Neris after 1235 . Throughout the 14th century, Lithuania expanded into the former territories of Rus’ while maintaining a policy of not altering local customs and beliefs. On the western border, nearly constant war with the ...

Lithuania

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,870 words

...Vilnius by some Lithuanian clergymen and teachers from the lesser gentry. They also prepared theological texts for print and translated some liturgical texts into the Lithuanian language. At this stage the supporters of the Reformation movement were not numerous, and the grand duchy of Lithuania supported the Catholic church. For this reason the first Lutherans had to emigrate to the Prussian duchy and work in Lithuanian churches, as well as at the University of Königsberg (founded in 1544 ) training pastors from among the local Lithuanians. The pastor ...

Lithuania

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Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... initially assigned Lithuania to Germany's sphere of influence. But during the invasion of Poland in September, Soviet troops occupied Wilno; and the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Demarcation of 28 September secretly transferred the whole of Lithuania to the Soviet sphere. As a result, Moscow's demands for the conclusion of a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with the Lithuanian government in Kaunas were supported by an apparently generous offer—to hand Wilno over in return for permission to station Soviet troops on Lithuanian territory. However,...

Lithuania

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The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... southernmost of the Baltic states, had a relatively large territory in the Middle Ages, first by itself and later in a dynastic union with neighbouring Poland. The territory extended at one time to the Black Sea, and Lithuania had close trading links with the Mongol-Tatars, the Ottoman Empire, etc. (whence, probably, some traces of C. Asian influence on Lithuanian food and the presence of pomegranate in some dishes). These influences, however, affected the aristocracy more than the general population. The Polish-Lithuanian state declined in the 17th...

Lithuania

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,328 words

...the Lithuanian people set up a national State under the leadership of Duke Mindaugas . At the end of that century and during the 14th, the grand duchy of Lithuania was continually increased by vast territories mostly populated by Orthodox Slavs , intent on escaping Tatar domination or the pressure of the Teutonic Order. At the time of Grand Duke Vytautas († 1430 ), Lithuania extended as far as Kiev and the Black Sea between the mouths of the Dniestr and the Dniepr. What follows, however, concerns only ethnic Lithuania, inhabited by Lithuanians . The...

Lithuania

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Simon Franklin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
289 words

...appointments split the see of “Kiev and all Russia,” of which Lithuania began to be considered an independent part, characterized in the title of the Polish king as Litborhosia, i .e., Lithuania-Rossia (MM 2:280.22). In an ekthesis of Andronikos II it was stated that Andronikos and Patr. John XIII Glykys transformed ta Litbada , the district ( enoria ) of “Great Rossia,” into a metropolis ( Notitiae CP , no.17.83). This action could be seen as antagonistic toward Moscow. In 1386 Lithuania and Poland came under the sole rule of Jagiello ( 1377–1432...

Lithuania

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The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,185 words

...are mainly Lithuanian Balts, speaking a Baltic language, and descended from those who settled along the Nemen River about 1500 bce . In the thirteenth century, Lithuania formed a strong unified state for protection from the Livonian and Teutonic knights; by absorbing nearby Russian principalities, Lithuania became one of the largest states in medieval Europe. Lithuania gradually merged with Poland, between 1386 and 1569 , thus coming under Russian control in 1795 when Poland was partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Lithuanian folk dances were...

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
832 words
Illustration(s):
1

...defeat, Lithuania was sandwiched between Soviet Russia which challenged its independent existence, only accepting it in 1920 , and Pilsudski's Poland which desired a revival of the union between the countries under Polish leadership. When that failed, Poland annexed substantial parts of middle Lithuania, including its capital, Vilnius. In return, Lithuanian troops occupied the German-speaking area around the Baltic town of Memel (Klaipéda). Subsequently, there was social unrest as large estates were expropriated, and many illiterate Lithuanian peasants...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,214 words
Illustration(s):
2

...country Lithuania’s terrain is mostly flat—a plain dotted with low hills and around 3,000 small lakes. The highest points are in the Baltic Highlands in the east and south-east. A feature of the sandy coastline is the narrow 100-kilometre sand spit that creates a distinctive lagoon. The people Compared with the other Baltic states—Estonia and Latvia—Lithuania’s population has a higher proportion of its own national group: more than 80 per cent of people are ethnic Lithuanian. As a result, when it regained independence in 1991 Lithuania was less...

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Brian Knox

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
228 words

... In the capital of ancient and modern Lithuania , Vilnius (Polish Wilno), two good 16th-century Gothic buildings remain, the Bernardines’ severe hall church and the chapel of St Anne with its flamboyant front in moulded brick. But the glories of Vilnius are to be found in the range and quality of its Baroque. The Counter-Reformation brought a surge of Italianate building, led by the Jesuits’ St Casimir ( 1604–18 ), followed by Tencalla’s Carmelites ( 1634–52 ) and his Cathedral chapel of St Casimir ( 1636–41 ) and by a Cracow architect’s church at...

Lithuania

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Arūnas Starkus

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... is an emerging winegrowing country despite its climate, which is nearly too cold for growing vitis vinifera . The short vegetative period is framed by frosts in mid May and the end of September, and winter temperatures can drop to −28 °C/−18 °F. Until as recently as 2007, most plantings were cold-resistant non-certified hybrids created in the mid 20th century by local breeder Antanas Gailiunas. However, since 2018 the country has seen a major increase in grape-growing and winemaking, with an estimated 50 ha/124 acres of vines planted by 2022. ...

Lithuania, Christianity in

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Hallgeir Elstad

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
605 words

...ancestors who sought refuge in Lithuania owing to persecution. There are small groups of Lutherans, Reformed Christians, and other Protestant groups. About 16% of Lithuanians have no religious affiliation. Hallgeir Elstad A. T. Lane , Lithuania: Stepping Westward (London, 2014). T. Balkelis , The Making of Modern Lithuania (London, 2011). D. Baronas , Christianity in Lithuania (Vilnius, 2002). I. Luksaite , ‘The Reformation in Lithuania: A New Look. Historiography and Interpretation’, LITUANUS. Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and...

Lithuania, Poetry of

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R. Šilbajoris and D. Litvinskaitė

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,870 words

...; Lithuanian Writers in the West , ed. A. Skrupskelis (1979) ; Selected Post-war Poetry , trans. J. Zdanys (1979) ; Sigitas Geda: Songs of Autumn , trans. J. Zdanys (1979) ; The Amber Lyre: 18th–20th Century Lithuanian Poetry , ed. J. Marcinkevičius and V. Kubilius (1983) ; Four Poets of Lithuania: Vytautas P. Bložė, Sigitas Geda, Nijolė Miliauskaitė, Kornelijus Platelis , trans. J. Zdanys (1995) ; Lithuania: In Her Own Words , ed. L. Sruoginis (1997) ; Breathing Free/Gyvas atodūsis , trans. V. Bakaitis (2001) ; Voices of Lithuanian...

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