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Libya

Subject: History

Libya is ending its diplomatic isolation, but democracy is still not on the agenda Most of Libya is a vast barren plain of rocks and sand. The majority of the population live in ...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Libya Physical map Political map...

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Libya adopted its present flag in 1977. It replaced the flag of the Federation of Arab Republics, which Libya left in that year. Libya's flag is the simplest of all world flags. It represents the country's quest for a green revolution in...

Libya

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Libya ( Lībiyā ) The State of Libya (Arabic: Dawlat Lībiyā) since 2017. Previously Libya ( 2011 ), following the fall of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi ( 1942–2011 ), the country’s leader ( 1969–2011 ); the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ( 1986–2011 ); the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ( 1977–86 ); the Libyan Arab Republic ( 1969–77 ); the Kingdom of Libya ( 1963–69 ); and the United Libyan Kingdom ( 1951–63 ) when it became independent. Gaddafi’s term Jamahiriya was taken to mean ‘Republic’. Once German and Italian troops had been...

Libya

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A Dictionary of Business and Management in the Middle East and North Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
330 words

...during and after the Gaddafi regime. The Transparency International corruption index currently ranks Libya 171 out of 180 countries. Meanwhile, the World Bank Ease of Doing Business ranking puts Libya at 186 out of 190 countries. Libya is a long-standing member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) . The state currency is the Libyan...

Libya

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Joyce Maire Reynolds

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
511 words

...a gazelle), and vine-branches above, with bunches of grapes. Hairstyle and cape seem taken from the real styles of Libyan women, the gazelle evokes the fecundity of pre-desert animals, the vine the fertility of cultivated land. The conceptualization is Greek and embodies the tradition that Libyans helped the founders of Cyrene. Whether it had an origin in Libyan belief is debatable. There is no certain evidence for a native cult of Libya and what there is for a Greek cult is of comparatively late date; the most widespread native cults known are those of ...

Libya

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
587 words

...the Egyptians, for whom, from the Old Kingdom onward, Libya formed a hostile western desert frontier. In his mortuary complex at Abu Sir, Sahure (fifth dynasty) boasted a victory over Libyans. The Story of Sinuhue (twelfth dynasty) mentions Tehune-Libyans vanquished by Egypt. Rameses II (nineteenth dynasty) built a chain of forts in the western desert against Libyan incursions. On reliefs at Medinet Habu, Rameses' son Merneptah recorded his defeat of a coalition of Sea Peoples and Libyans (written RBW or LBW, vocalized Lebu or Libu ). During the...

Libya

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Najla Naeem Abdurrahman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,643 words

...the second Ottoman period (roughly 1835–1911 ) as well as the effects of Italian colonialism in Libya ( 1911–1943 ), both of which impacted the social structures and political economies of the Libyan territories. The emergence of Libya's oil economy in the 1950s and 1960s under the monarchy of King Idris al-Sanusi ( r. 1951–1969 ) and the autocratic regime of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī ( r. 1969–2011 ) precipitated the mass migration of rural Libyans to coastal cities, and resulted in the large-scale urbanization of the population, as well as the...

Libya

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The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... a country which became independent in 1951 , had previously been ruled by Spain (in the 16th century), the Ottomans, and (for 40 years in the 20th century) Italy. This history has left some marks on the cookery and foodways of Libyans; but the effect of increased prosperity (from oil) and the consequent expansion of food imports, in the last part of the 20th century, has perhaps made a greater impact. As Merdol ( 1992 ) has put it: ‘Libyan people eat three meals a day. But one may say that they set the table just for lunch. Other meals are light and not...

Libya

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The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Italian immigrants. Most Italians lived in the coastal towns and that year the coastal zone was declared part of Italy. Cyrenaica, Libya's eastern province, saw most of the fighting as Axis forces under Rommel launched a series of offensives to capture Egypt and the Suez Canal. When British and Commonwealth troops occupied the larger Libyan towns such as Benghazi the local Arab population turned on the Italian colonists. Libyans served in both the Italian and British forces, though the latter did not use them in...

Libya

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Joyce Maire Reynolds

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
452 words

...a gazelle), and vine-branches above, with bunches of grapes. Hairstyle and cape seem taken from the real styles of Libyan women, the gazelle evokes the fecundity of pre-desert animals, the vine the fertility of cultivated land. The conceptualization is Greek and embodies the tradition that Libyans helped the founders of Cyrene. Whether it had an origin in Libyan belief is debatable. There is no certain evidence for a native cult of Libya and what there is for a Greek cult is of comparatively late date; the most widespread native cults known are those of...

Libya

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,907 words

...over Libya after a period of autonomy, but as a result of the Italo–Turkish war of 1911–12 ceded Libya to Italy. Resistance (initially from the Sanusi, a religious movement founded in 1837 ) thwarted full colonial control until the early 1930s, when large numbers of Italians settled in the north. Libya, until then a geographical expression, became the official name of the Italian colony. In 1942–3 Libya came under British and Free French administration; the three Libyan provinces were administered separately: Tripolitania (northwestern Libya) and...

Libya

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...message, encapsulated in the Green Book, had little appeal outside Libya. Matters came to a head in 1986 when the United States, alleging Libyan support for terrorism, bombed selected targets around Benghazi and Tripoli. In the extended decade between the April 1986 U.S. attack on Libya and the April 1999 Libyan decision to remand the two Libyan suspects in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, the Libyan people Libya. Libyans in front of a billboard depicting Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi, Tripoli, September 2003. Photograph by Amr...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,035 words
Illustration(s):
4

... Libya, officially named the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, is located in N Africa. The majority live on the Mediterranean coastal plains in the NE and NW. The Sahara , the world's largest desert, occupies 95% of Libya, reaching the Mediterranean coast along the Gulf of Sidra (Khalíj Surt). The Sahara is virtually uninhabited except around scattered oases. The land rises towards the S, reaching 2,286m [7,500ft] at Bette Peak (Bikku Bitti) on the border with Chad. Shrubs and grasses grow on N coasts, with some trees in wetter areas. Few...

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,448 words

... . A desert country in North Africa, Libya emerged as an independent state in 1951 . The territory had been seized by Italy shortly before World War I and forged into a single colony during long military campaigns against local tribes between 1911 and 1927 . Over 100,000 Italians came to settle in Libya as part of a Fascist policy of “demographic colonization.” The Mussolini regime, which proudly spoke of Libya as Italy's Quarta Sponda or “Fourth Shore,” spent 1.8 billion lira to build roads and other infrastructure to strengthen its hold on the...

Libya

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Warminster, 1996. Comprehensive chronological and political account of this period of Egyptian history. Leahy, A. The Libyan Period in Egypt: An Essay in Interpretation . Libyan Studies 16 (1985), 51–65. Argues that the Libyans in Egypt retained elements of their cultural background that had a significant impact on Egypt in the first millennium bce . O'Connor, D. The Nature of Tjemhu (Libyan) Society in the Later New Kingdom. In Libya and Egypt c. 1300–750 BC , edited by A. Leahy , pp. 29–113. London, 1990. Detailed analysis of the New Kingdom...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,228 words
Illustration(s):
2

...It now supplies around 70 per cent of Libya’s water needs, though supplies are regularly disrupted by militia attacks on desert pumping stations. Contemporary politics For 42 years, Libyan politics revolved around Muammar Gaddafi . Following a military coup in 1969 , Libya’s monarchy was overthrown and a group of military officers led by the then twenty-nine-year-old Captain Gaddafi seized control and redirected Libya towards Arab socialism. In 1977 he changed the country’s name to the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (‘state of the...

Libya

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Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,083 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Libya and the United States, which shot down two Libyan aircraft in 1981 . Five years later, amid accusations of Libyan support for terrorism, the United States attacked Libya and banned trade with it. In 1992 , after Qaddafi refused to turn over individuals who were suspected of having caused Pan Am 103, a U.S. airliner, to explode over Scotland in 1988 , the United Nations banned arms sales to Libya. When the United States ended its commercial relationship with Libya, European companies filled the void. Despite economic sanctions against Libya, the...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
735 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of its history Libya has been inhabited by Arab and Berber nomads, only the coastlands and oases being settled. Greek colonies existed in ancient times, and later under the Romans; under the Arabs the cultivated area lapsed into desert. Administered by the Turks from the 16th century, Libya was annexed by Italy after a brief war in 1911–12 . The Italians, however, like the Turks before them, never succeeded in asserting their full authority over the Sanussi tribesmen of the interior desert. Heavily fought over during World War II, Libya was placed under a...

Libya

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,867 words
Illustration(s):
2

... shaykhs —such as ʿUmar al-Mukhtār —who continued the struggle against the fascists until 1927 . Libyan Independence. Libya's Premier Mahmoud Bey Muntasser (right) reads the proclamation of independence while King Idrīs I looks on, Benghazi, 1951. AP Images Due in part to the Sanūsī alliance with the British in World War II, and because of the Great Powers ’ determination that Libya should not fall once more under Italian tutelage, the Kingdom of Libya was proclaimed in 1951 with King Idrīs al-Sanūsī , the grandson of the Order 's founder, as its...

Libya

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Dirk Vandewalle and Ronald Bruce St John

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,974 words

...establishment throughout the Arab world. It resulted in a political process in which the Libyan leader simply imposed his own views on Libyan religious leaders and the country's population alike. The Islamic precepts that Qadhdhāfī had originally advocated as valuable in themselves assumed an evocative symbolism in Libya, and anchored within the teachings of the Third Universal Theory, became a political instrument of the regime. Despite this Islam in Libya today is not undergoing a religious revival by radical means. Qadhdhāfī sought simply to extend...

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