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Latin

(as pronounced by singers and liturgists) Because Latin was not a primary language for anyone in the late MA, its pronunciation differed in a number of ways from that of ...

Latins

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
635 words

...rights and obligations as the existing Latin states; they were therefore known as Latin colonies. During the 4th cent. Roman territorial ambitions began to be seen as a threat by the Latins, who in 341 finally took up arms together with their southern neighbours. The ensuing ‘Latin War’ ended in disaster for the Latins and their allies, and in 338 the Romans imposed a settlement whereby some Latin and Volscian cities were incorporated in the Roman state with full citizenship (e.g. Aricia and Antium). The other Latins remained allies and continued to share...

Latins

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,720 words

...was driven by the Romans’ foreign policy—but Latins may have taken part, and the colonies took Latin status; that is, the colonies were given the same rights that the existing Latin states had, including favorable terms in regard to commerce and marriage ( commercium et conubium ). The alliance, which depended heavily on Latin contributions to the Roman army, faced a stern test during the fourth century bce with regular incursions by Sabines, Aequi, and Volscians into the plains; indeed, at least one Latin city, Satricum, appears from the burial evidence...

Latins

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
942 words

...between Byz. and the “Latin” world intensified. The colonies of Italian merchants on Byz. soil became sizable. Eustathios of Thessalonike counted 60,000 Latins in Constantinople (Eust. Thess., Capture 34.2–3); they received concessions more significant than those the Rus᾽ had enjoyed in the 10th C. Western mercenaries occupied an important position in the Byz. army, and the Normans (as well as the English and Germans) replaced contingents from Rus᾽. Matrimonial connections between the Byz. and Latins became more frequent: the...

Latins

Latins  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Inhabited Latium Vetus. They formed a unified ethnic group with a common name a common sentiment, and a common language; they worshipped the same gods and had similar political and social ...
Latinisms

Latinisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... . In the English language, Latin words and phrases typically fall into one of six categories: (1) those that are now so common that they’re barely recognizable as Latin ( bonus , data , vice versa ); (2) those that are reduced to abbreviations in scholarly contexts ( e.g. , i.e. , ibid. , id .); (3) those used in jargon of doctors, lawyers, and scientists ( metatarsus , habeas corpus , chlorella ); (4) the mottoes and maxims used especially in ceremonial contexts ( E pluribus unum , Sic transit gloria mundi ); (5) those that literate...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... late . Law Latin See under law . Low Latin See under low . Macaronic Latin See under macaroni . Medieval Latin See under medieval . New Latin See under new . Pig Latin See under pig . Rogues’ Latin See thieves ’ latin . Thieves’ Latin See under thief . Vulgar Latin See under vulgar...

Latinisms

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25 words

... A few words in the Greek NT are clearly borrowed from the Latin, such as denarius (Mark 6: 37) and praetorium (Mark 15:...

Latinity

Latinity   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Proficiency in the Latin language, or a tendency to use Latinate diction or style. In the first sense, Latinity may be an individual acquisition or a feature of an entire educational culture. A serious student of Latin language and literature is a Latinist , but an incompetent or fraudulent one may be called a Latinitaster , or in the worst case completely Latinless...

Latinism

Latinism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Latinism . A latin word or other element in another language: for example, in English the word stimulus , the phrase non sequitur , the sentence Sic transit gloria mundi , and the derivative illegality (from illegalis ). ...

Latin

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
130 words

... Language of ancient Rome , the Roman empire , and of educated medieval European society. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages . Its earliest written records are inscriptions and legal formulas of the late 6th century bc . As Rome extended its rule throughout Italy, Latin gained supremacy. The richest phase of Latin literature was the Augustan age ( 43 bc – ad 14 ). Spoken Latin was used throughout the Roman Empire. It eventually broke up into numerous dialects, which formed the basis of the Romance languages . Latin remained the...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,790 words

...of place-names in Latin have been issued. The Second Vatican Council declared that the use of Latin was to be maintained in the liturgy, though permission was granted for some use of the vernacular; in the outcome, the use of the vernacular has almost entirely triumphed, although the official books continue to be published in Latin. In the C of E the Latin versions of the Book of Common Prayer have never been widely used, though, for instance, John Wesley used the Latin text in doctrinal writings. The option of using traditional Latin texts in sung...

Latin

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
422 words

... . The language of government and the courts, Latin was also the normal spoken language of many people in the W. provinces of the Roman Empire. It was naturally used as one of the languages of the early Christians, though it was only in the 4th cent. that it superseded Greek. By then Classical Latin had given way to Late Latin and the more popular spoken language had been adopted into literary use. In the late 4th cent. a series of major figures writing in Latin established it as the language of the W. Church: Sts Hilary , Ambrose , Augustine , and ...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
314 words

...in Latin, as well as the staging of plays in Latin, were a normal part of university education. This was despite there being no European consensus about its pronunciation (the philosopher Giordano Bruno , for instance, was mocked for his Italian pronunciation of Latin when he came to lecture at Oxford in 1583 ). There was, moreover, a flourishing literature of learned discourses, poems, histories, narratives, and other genres written in Latin, in England and elsewhere, much of it confined purely to manuscripts. A reaction against the use of Latin for...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
247 words

... . The language of imperial Rome and ancestor of the Romance languages. Because of its use by the Roman army and civil administration, Latin had some currency in the eastern Mediterranean in the first century CE , in such provinces as Syria and Judea. Latin inscriptions marked mileposts on roadways, and warned gentiles against entry into the Temple courts in Jerusalem . Other inscriptions survive from military camps and buildings dedicated by Roman officials, such as the aqueduct and the temple for emperor worship at Caesarea Maritima. The charge...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
522 words

...in his lifetime. Herakleios in the early 7th C. abandoned Latin for Greek in the imperial titulature. Lawyers preserved some knowledge of Latin, often superficial, from the 8th to 11th C., and Constantine IX 's novel establishing a law school in Constantinople prescribes the teaching of Latin. From the 11th C. onward, closer, if sometimes hostile, contact with the West led to increasing knowledge of Latin in leading Byz. circles; Romanos III spoke Latin and Psellos claimed some knowledge of it. Still, cultural arrogance usually marked Byz. attitudes...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ This entry includes two subentries, on the Latin language and on the pronunciation of ancient Latin .] The Latin Language Virgil, Cicero, and Augustus all spoke and wrote in Latin. The form of Latin used in ancient literary works, described in grammars and dictionaries and nowadays taught in schools and universities, is usually called “Classical.” Classical Latin was modeled on the speech and writings of the Roman elite in the late Republican and early imperial periods and soon came to be recognized as the “correct” form of the language. It is the...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . The Latin language spread with the growing political importance of Rome, until, by the time of the empire, it was spoken widely throughout Western Europe. Its popular or ‘vulgar’ forms were the ancestors of the Romance languages. The ‘maner Latyn corrupt’ of Constance , the emperor's daughter is probably a ‘mixed Latin’ or, possibly, Italian. The Latin of the ancient authors ( see classical antiquity ; classical literature ) lived on, beyond the end of antiquity, as a spoken and written language, often influenced by local vernacular vocabulary and...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
844 words

... . Although Ireland had not been wholly isolated from the Roman world, Latin came to Ireland with the 5th‐century Christianization . The earliest surviving Latin works written in Ireland are St Patrick 's Confession and Letter to Coroticus . Recent research suggests that Patrick's apology, in the former, for his rusty Latin should not be taken at face value, the apparently awkward style concealing a close attention to the number of syllables in each phrase. Writings in Latin by native Irishmen first appear in the 7th century. The Irish, unlike...

LATIN

LATIN   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,325 words

...but Latin increasingly predominated until by the first century bce it was the dominant language of the peninsula. In the western empire outside Italy and the Roman colonies, the army was one of the main vehicles for the spread of Latin, both through contact with the local population and the learning of Latin by non-Latin speaking auxiliaries. In Italy there were two different kinds of Latin, the formal, polished, correct Latin spoken by the educated and surviving in public speeches and most of extant Latin literature, and common colloquial Latin. Plautus...

Latin

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
86 words

... The language originally of the people of Latium, the Latini, who occupied territory with several towns in Italy in the neighbourhood of * Rome . The Romans gradually extended their hold over the whole area and in 340 bce defeated the Latins at the battle of Mount Vesuvius. The language spoken by these peoples, many of whom moved into the capital, was adopted by the educated, by administrators, and by soldiers, although Greek remained the principal language amongst people generally in the first centuries bce and ce...

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