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Latin

(as pronounced by singers and liturgists) Because Latin was not a primary language for anyone in the late MA, its pronunciation differed in a number of ways from that of ...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... late . Law Latin See under law . Low Latin See under low . Macaronic Latin See under macaroni . Medieval Latin See under medieval . New Latin See under new . Pig Latin See under pig . Rogues’ Latin See thieves ’ latin . Thieves’ Latin See under thief . Vulgar Latin See under vulgar...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
130 words

... Language of ancient Rome , the Roman empire , and of educated medieval European society. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages . Its earliest written records are inscriptions and legal formulas of the late 6th century bc . As Rome extended its rule throughout Italy, Latin gained supremacy. The richest phase of Latin literature was the Augustan age ( 43 bc – ad 14 ). Spoken Latin was used throughout the Roman Empire. It eventually broke up into numerous dialects, which formed the basis of the Romance languages . Latin remained the...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
422 words

... . The language of government and the courts, Latin was also the normal spoken language of many people in the W. provinces of the Roman Empire. It was naturally used as one of the languages of the early Christians, though it was only in the 4th cent. that it superseded Greek. By then Classical Latin had given way to Late Latin and the more popular spoken language had been adopted into literary use. In the late 4th cent. a series of major figures writing in Latin established it as the language of the W. Church: Sts Hilary , Ambrose , Augustine , and ...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
314 words

...in Latin, as well as the staging of plays in Latin, were a normal part of university education. This was despite there being no European consensus about its pronunciation (the philosopher Giordano Bruno , for instance, was mocked for his Italian pronunciation of Latin when he came to lecture at Oxford in 1583 ). There was, moreover, a flourishing literature of learned discourses, poems, histories, narratives, and other genres written in Latin, in England and elsewhere, much of it confined purely to manuscripts. A reaction against the use of Latin for...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
247 words

... . The language of imperial Rome and ancestor of the Romance languages. Because of its use by the Roman army and civil administration, Latin had some currency in the eastern Mediterranean in the first century CE , in such provinces as Syria and Judea. Latin inscriptions marked mileposts on roadways, and warned gentiles against entry into the Temple courts in Jerusalem . Other inscriptions survive from military camps and buildings dedicated by Roman officials, such as the aqueduct and the temple for emperor worship at Caesarea Maritima. The charge...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ This entry includes two subentries, on the Latin language and on the pronunciation of ancient Latin .] The Latin Language Virgil, Cicero, and Augustus all spoke and wrote in Latin. The form of Latin used in ancient literary works, described in grammars and dictionaries and nowadays taught in schools and universities, is usually called “Classical.” Classical Latin was modeled on the speech and writings of the Roman elite in the late Republican and early imperial periods and soon came to be recognized as the “correct” form of the language. It is the...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . The Latin language spread with the growing political importance of Rome, until, by the time of the empire, it was spoken widely throughout Western Europe. Its popular or ‘vulgar’ forms were the ancestors of the Romance languages. The ‘maner Latyn corrupt’ of Constance , the emperor's daughter is probably a ‘mixed Latin’ or, possibly, Italian. The Latin of the ancient authors ( see classical antiquity ; classical literature ) lived on, beyond the end of antiquity, as a spoken and written language, often influenced by local vernacular vocabulary and...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Robert Browning and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
522 words

...in his lifetime. Herakleios in the early 7th C. abandoned Latin for Greek in the imperial titulature. Lawyers preserved some knowledge of Latin, often superficial, from the 8th to 11th C., and Constantine IX 's novel establishing a law school in Constantinople prescribes the teaching of Latin. From the 11th C. onward, closer, if sometimes hostile, contact with the West led to increasing knowledge of Latin in leading Byz. circles; Romanos III spoke Latin and Psellos claimed some knowledge of it. Still, cultural arrogance usually marked Byz. attitudes...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
844 words

... . Although Ireland had not been wholly isolated from the Roman world, Latin came to Ireland with the 5th‐century Christianization . The earliest surviving Latin works written in Ireland are St Patrick 's Confession and Letter to Coroticus . Recent research suggests that Patrick's apology, in the former, for his rusty Latin should not be taken at face value, the apparently awkward style concealing a close attention to the number of syllables in each phrase. Writings in Latin by native Irishmen first appear in the 7th century. The Irish, unlike...

LATIN

LATIN   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,325 words

...but Latin increasingly predominated until by the first century bce it was the dominant language of the peninsula. In the western empire outside Italy and the Roman colonies, the army was one of the main vehicles for the spread of Latin, both through contact with the local population and the learning of Latin by non-Latin speaking auxiliaries. In Italy there were two different kinds of Latin, the formal, polished, correct Latin spoken by the educated and surviving in public speeches and most of extant Latin literature, and common colloquial Latin. Plautus...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
86 words

... The language originally of the people of Latium, the Latini, who occupied territory with several towns in Italy in the neighbourhood of * Rome . The Romans gradually extended their hold over the whole area and in 340 bce defeated the Latins at the battle of Mount Vesuvius. The language spoken by these peoples, many of whom moved into the capital, was adopted by the educated, by administrators, and by soldiers, although Greek remained the principal language amongst people generally in the first centuries bce and ce...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,385 words

...Latin . The classical and cultural language of Western Europe, a member of the indo-european language family, and the precursor of the Romance languages . Particularly since the Renaissance, Latin has also been the scholarly and literary seed-corn for the vernacular European languages. English has proved to be the most receptive among the germanic languages to direct as well as indirect Latin influence. Nature and influence Latin is a highly inflected language noted for conciseness of expression: for example, the one word amābunt translates the...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
220 words

...for the modern reader or singer by the continually evolving pronunciation of the vernaculars over the centuries of the late MA, which would have carried over to the pronunciation of Latin . Thus, the syllable ‘ci’ in Anglo (English) Latin would have been pronounced as ‘see’ before 1400 , and as the ‘sh’ in ‘ sh ip’ afterward. Timothy J. McGee H. Copeman , Singing in Latin (1990). R. W. Duffin , ed., A Performer’s Guide to Medieval Music (2000). T. J. McGee , A. G. Rigg , and D. N. Klausner , eds, Singing Early Music ...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Graham Barrett

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,504 words

...Medieval Latin from British Sources (3 vols, Oxford, 2018). Guides and studies: M. Manitius , Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters (Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 9.2; 3 vols, Munich, 1911–31). W. E. Plater and H. J. White , A Grammar of the Vulgate (Oxford, 1926). C. Mohrmann , Liturgical Latin: Its Origin and Character (Washington, DC, 1957). C. Mohrmann , Études sur le latin des chrétiens (4 vols, Rome, 1958–77). E. Löfstedt , Late Latin (Oslo and London, 1959). R. Wright , Late Latin and Early...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,585 words

...reflection on the history of the language fixed Latin in a timeless, or transtemporal, perfection – dare we say that of the Latin themes of our youth? This rather rapid and undetailed historical glimpse helps us answer two questions: Latin in the Middle Ages, how and why? How: medieval Latin, wielded by competent writers, was broadly that of late Antiquity, i.e. a classical Latin with a slightly simplified syntax, but enriched by substantial contributions, mainly lexical, from “Christian Latin” (see C. Mohrmann) and marked by a very lively taste for...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the name “Josepu” and a bilingual (Latin and Greek) papyrus with Jewish names, Mas748. The scanty Latin fragments from Wadi Murabba῾at (Mur 158–163) are paleographically and tentatively dated to the first and second century ce . Bibliography Benoit, P. “Papyrus Latins.” In P. Benoit, J. T. Milik, and R. de Vaux, Les Grottes de Murabba‘at , pp. 270–274. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, 2. Oxford, 1961. Cotton, H. M. and J. Geiger . Masada II: The Latin and Greek Documents . Final Reports. Jerusalem, 1989. Doc.Mas. refers to the papyri published in this...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
71 words

... Italic , originally the language of Rome, where first attested by inscriptions from before the 3rd century bc ; subsequently of the whole of the western part of the Roman empire, and the ancestor of the Romance languages. A learned language from the early Middle Ages, linked especially with the Roman branch of Christianity, in whose liturgy it was obligatory until the 1960s. Written in the Roman alphabet...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,843 words

...A guide to the pronunciation of Classical Latin . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Coleman, Robert . 1975. Greek influence on Latin syntax . Transactions of the Philological Society 1975.101–156. Coleman, Robert . 1987. Vulgar Latin and the diversity of Christian Latin. In Latin vulgaire—Latin tardif , edited by Joseph Herman , pp. 37–52. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Collart, Jean . 1967. Histoire de la langue latine . (Que sais-je?, 1281.) Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Herman, Joseph . 1967. Le latin vulgaire . (Que sais-je?, 1247.) Paris:...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
61 words

... US frequency (2010): 639 1 Croatian: nickname for a Roman Catholic or an ethnic name for an Italian or a Wallachian, Aromanian (see Vlachos ), ultimately from Latin Latinus ‘of or pertaining to the Latin people or culture’. 2 English: metonymic occupational name for a Latinist, a clerk or keeper of Latin records, from Middle English Latyn , Latin . Compare Latimer...

Bureaucracy in Latin America

Bureaucracy in Latin America   Reference library

John Polga-Hecimovich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,037 words
Illustration(s):
6

...reform in Latin America: Issues and possible solutions . Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank. Negretto, Gabriel L. (2006). Minority presidents and democratic performance in Latin America. Latin American Politics and Society , 48 (3), 63–92. Nunes, Rodrigo M. (2015). The politics of sentencing reform in Brazil: Autonomous bureaucrats, constrained politicians and gradual policy change. Journal of Latin American Studies , 47 (1), 121–148. Ocampo, José Antonio , & Ros, Jaime (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of Latin American...

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