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Kavod

Subject: Religion

(), a term with social, moral, and theological implications derived from the Hebrew root for weight, meaning honor, respect, reverence, importance, distinction, or glory. A person gives ...

KAVOD

KAVOD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
276 words

... ( ), a term with social, moral, and theological implications derived from the Hebrew root for weight , meaning honor, respect, reverence, importance, distinction, or glory. A person gives kavod (honor) to God ( Jos . 7.19), and God is the kavod (glory) of those who believe in him ( Ps . 3.4); Israel was created for God’s kavod , that is, to glorify him ( Is . 43.7). More particularly, the term refers to God’s power and majesty and is often connected with the appearance of divine light: “The glory [ kavod ] of the Lord was like devouring fire” ( Ex ....

SHIR HA-KAVOD

SHIR HA-KAVOD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
158 words

...HA-KAVOD ( ; Hymn of Glory; also known after its opening words as Anʿim Zemirot [I Shall Sing Songs]), alphabetic acrostic recited responsively by Ashkenazim at the end of the morning service (in some rites restricted to the conclusion of the Sabbath additional service, in Israel and in some diaspora synagogues sometimes recited before the reading of the Torah, in other places omitted entirely). Shir ha-Kavod is often recited by a boy (or girl in non-Orthodox congregations) under the age of thirteen, with the congregation reading the responses. In certain...

Kavod

Kavod  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(), a term with social, moral, and theological implications derived from the Hebrew root for weight, meaning honor, respect, reverence, importance, distinction, or glory. A person gives kavod (honor) ...
Shir Ha-Kavod

Shir Ha-Kavod  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(; Hymn of Glory; also known after its opening words as Anʿim Zemirot [I Shall Sing Songs]), alphabetic acrostic recited responsively by Ashkenazim at the end of the morning service ...
HONOR

HONOR   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
243 words

...(Heb. kavod ). [For the theological use of the term kavod , See Kavod .] In the first place, honor is due to God, the source of all honor ( Prv . 3.9; Mal . 1.6), and, according to the Bible, also to parents ( Ex . 20.12), the Sabbath ( Is . 18.13), the aged ( Lv . 19.32), and the Godfearing ( Ps . 15.4). The rabbis also emphasize the honor due to one’s teacher, since “the father only ensures him life in this world, while the teacher brings him to the life of the world to come” ( B.M . 33a). The rabbinic saying “Let the honor of your friend be as dear...

Judah ben Samuel he-Ḥasid

Judah ben Samuel he-Ḥasid (c.1150–1217)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
63 words

...ben Samuel he-Ḥasid ( c. 1150–1217 ). Main teacher of the Jewish Ḥasidei Ashkenaz movement. In c. 1195 , he moved to Regensburg, where he established an academy. Many legends were circulated about his life, but little for definite is known. His major works were Sefer ha-Kavod (Book of Divine Glory) of which only fragments survive, and Sefer Ḥasidim , to which he was only a...

YEHUDA BEN SHEMU’EL HE-ḤASID

YEHUDA BEN SHEMU’EL HE-ḤASID   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
148 words

...made him the subject of many legends. The ethical work SeferḤasidim has been ascribed to him; in fact it is a composite work, containing writings of Yehuda, his father Shemu’el, and his pupil Elʿazar ben Yehuda of Worms . Yehuda is also credited with the authorship of Shir ha-Kavod . Although his mystical teachings were primarily ethical and devotional, they also contained theosophical doctrines as well as elements of folk religion. His stress on Bible study and devout prayer rather than Talmudic scholarship had popular appeal, and he advised those who knew...

SHIR HA-YIḤUD

SHIR HA-YIḤUD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
164 words

...or to his father, R. Shemu’el ben Kalonimos (b. 1115). An English translation of the entire hymn, by Nina Salamon, Elsie Davis, and H. M. Adler, is given in Davis and Adler’s Service of the Synagogue (London, 1908), pages 60–72. Abraham Meir Habermann , Shirei ha-Yiḥud veha-Kavod (Jerusalem, 1948). Macy Nulman , The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (Northvale, N.J., and London, 1993), pp. 306–307. –A. STANLEY...

SONG OF SONGS ZUTA’

SONG OF SONGS ZUTA’   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

...Schechter believed it dated from the ninth century, Zvi Meir Rabinovitz suggested that the terminology, the sages mentioned, the theomorphic ha-Maqom, and some of the historical allusions indicated a tannaitic origin. Song of Songs Zuta’ contains numerous allusions to the kavod (celestial visions) and messianic apocalypse, giving the work a more mystical bent than that of Song of Songs Rabbah . Zvi Meir Rabinowitz , Ginzei Midrash (Tel Aviv, 1976). Solomon Schechter , ed., Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim (1896; Jerusalem, 1967). Hermann Leberecht Strack ...

Kedushah

Kedushah   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
152 words

..., for I the Lord your God am holy’ (Leviticus 19. 2) has consistently been understood by the rabbis as requiring that the Jews must be a people ‘set apart’. The ultimate hope is that not only the Jewish nation, but the entire universe will be filled with the divine glory ( kavod ), and the prophet Zechariah looked to a time when even the bells on horses will be inscribed with ‘Holy to the Lord’ (Zechariah 14. 20–1). In rabbinic literature, holiness is of God's essence (‘The Holy One, Blessed be he’). Israel can only share in God's holiness through...

CHILDRENʾS PRAYERS AND SERVICES

CHILDRENʾS PRAYERS AND SERVICES   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
232 words

...reached bar mitsvah age to recite a certain sentence in the morning service or even read the haftarah , while in Ashkenazi synagogues it has become common for a young boy (or girl in non- Orthodox congregations) to lead the reading of the Anʿim Zemirot prayer ( see Shir ha-Kavod ). Children’s services are virtually unknown in Israel. B. Gottschalk , Der juedische Jugendgottesdienst nach Theorie und Praxis (Berlin, 1915). Rina Rosenberg , “ The Development of the Concept of Prayer in Jewish-Israeli Children and Adolescents ,” Studies in Jewish...

CANDLES

CANDLES   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
323 words

...death, and on the eve of Yom Kippur. The candles may not be made of nonkosher fat. See also Light ; Memorial Light ; Menorah . B. M. Levin , “Le-Toledot Ner Shabbat,” in Essays and Studies in Memory of Linda A. Miller (New York, 1938), pp. 55–68. Israel Ta-Shema , “Ner shel Kavod,” in Minhag Ashkenaz ha-Kadmon (Jerusalem, 1992), pp. 135–145. Chava Weissler , “ Woman as High Priest: A Kabbalistic Prayer in Yiddish for Lighting Sabbath Candles, ” Jewish History 5.1 (Spring 1991):...

YEHUDA BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI

YEHUDA BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
285 words

...in his commentary were in conformity with rabbinic tradition. This was especially difficult in regard to Saʿadyah’s views on revelation; Saʿadyah denied any possibility of revelation of a divine entity and insisted that what the prophets had seen was a created angel, the kavod or shekhinah , that serves as a sign that verifies the divine content of the prophetic message. Yehuda supported this view and tried to confirm it by a detailed exegesis of rabbinic statements concerning revelation. He quotes dozens of treatises from late antiquity and the early...

ABULAFIA FAMILY

ABULAFIA FAMILY   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
277 words

...sharp contrast to the general licentiousness of contemporary Jewish courtiers. He denounced the laxity of the Jews of Castile and demanded high standards of morality and religious observance. Abulafia’s mystical teachings stressed the gnostic elements of Kabbalah. His Otsar ha-Kavod (1879), a mystical commentary on Talmudic legends, is a difficult work replete with esoteric references. Bernard Septimus , Hispano-Jewish Culture in Transition: The Career and Controversies of Ramah (Cambridge, Mass.,...

THRONE OF GOD

THRONE OF GOD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
391 words

...Jewish mystics, using the imagery of Ezekiel, described their experience as an ascent of the soul to the celestial throne to view the majesty of God. The throne and its dimensions are described in detail ( Ḥag . 13a). The idea of the throne of God was also connected with that of kavod , the visible manifestation of the incorporeal God. All of this had an influence on the liturgy of the synagogue and on Kabbalah, in which the throne was linked with one of the sefirot . The medieval philosophers accepted the concept but often interpreted it allegorically (cf....

SHEKHINAH

SHEKHINAH   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
415 words

...beatific vision of the future world is expressed in the words, “there the righteous sit and enjoy the splendor of the shekhinah” (Ber . 17a). In many cases the term shekhinah is synonymous with God. In the teachings of the ḥasidei Ashkenaz, the shekhinah was equated with kavod (the created “divine splendor”), a notion derived from Saʿadyah Ga’on. In the kabbalistic doctrine of sefirot , the Shekhinah plays a key role as the tenth and last sefirah , marking the point of contact between the divine and the lower spheres (“Gate of Heaven”), and...

REVELATION

REVELATION   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
644 words

...a vision ” or “in a dream ” ( Gn . 31.13ff.; Nm . 12.6) or by means of an angel . At the same time, the bible emphasizes that no direct, sensory perception of God is possible, and hence various circumscriptions were used when describing divine manifestations, for example, kavod (glory; See Ex . 33.18–23) and, in later rabbinic usage, shekhinah (e.g., gilluy shekhinah [divine manifestation]). Sometimes the agent of revelation is described as the “word” ( davar ; See Logos ) or as the “spirit” ( see Ruaḥ ha-Qodesh ). Although any event in which...

Throne

Throne   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Merkavah , which describes thousands upon thousands of chariot thrones singing doxologies to God in each of seven heikhalot (“palaces,” “temples”; Ma῾aseh Merkavah 6). The twelfth Sabbath song contains an extended account of the chariot throne that bears the glory of God ( kavod ). In systematic fashion the passage describes the way in which the various creatures associated with the chariot throne (the cherubim, the ofannim , and attendant angels) praise God. The passage is closely based on Ezekiel's vision and actually derives its interpretation of the...

Names of God

Names of God   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Community xi.8). Other names of God are “God of Mercy” El Raḥamim (Hodayot x.29), “God of Salvation” El Yeshu῾ot (Rule of the Community i.19), “God of Eternity” El ῾olam (Hodayot vii.31; from Gn. 21.33 ), “Holy One” Qadosh (War Scroll xii.8), “King of Glory” Melekh ha-Kavod (War Scroll xii.8; from Ps. 24.8 ), or very often “Maker/Creator” ῾Oseh (Damascus Document ii.21). These and other designations too numerous to list here are not intended to take the place of the name of God. The holy name was considered ineffable and was therefore avoided or...

GOD

GOD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,928 words

.... The biblical God has no spouse, no children, no siblings, no parents, and no physical needs. The biblical God does have a body (or, in some early texts, many bodies, located at various places on earth and also at least one body in heaven), but God’s body (sometimes called the kavod ) differs from human bodies in many respects. It may be made of fire or intense light rather than the sort of flesh that human and animal bodies are made of. It has no limitations and in some texts can change shape or form radically. To the extent that biblical authors think of...

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