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Juvenal

(c. 60–c. 140),

Roman satirist. His sixteen verse satires present a savage attack on the vice and folly of Roman society, chiefly in the reign of the emperor Domitian.

Juvenal

Juvenal ([Na])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
56 words

... [Na] Famous as the author of the Sixteen Satires , Juvenal was born in about ad 55 in Spain. He saw military service as the commander of an auxiliary unit in Britain under Agricola. He then spent most of his life in Rome cultivating social contacts. The Satires were published in the early 2nd century ad...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c. ad 60–136)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... , Decimus Junius Juvenalis ( c. ad 60–136 ), the Roman satirist . He is twice mentioned by Chaucer . It is not certain that he had read all of Juvenal's satires. He might have known only one or two, or even simply extracts in florilegia ( see classical literature ), though the latter seems unlikely. Juvenal was a ‘curriculum author’, and often mentioned in commentaries. Both of Chaucer's references are to the tenth Satire. Juvenal is quoted by the old woman in The Wife of Bath's Tale in her disquisition on ‘ gentillesse ’, speaking of ‘glad...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Reference library

Aristeides Papadakis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
242 words

...of Constantinople. Although Cyril failed to support Juvenal strongly, Juvenal still sided with Egypt at the “Robber” Council of Ephesus ( 449 ) by voting with the Alexandrian Dioskoros to restore Eutyches . At the Council of Chalcedon ( 451 ), however, Juvenal sided with Constantinople by endorsing Dioskoros's deposition. As a result, the three Palestines were detached from Antioch to create the patriarchate of Jerusalem . When Monophysite monks faithful to Dioskoros and Eutyches rebelled on Juvenal's return to the holy city, he was forced to call in...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c.55–c.140)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
140 words

... ( c.55–c.140 ) , Roman poet whose sixteen satires deployed rhetorical indignation against vices of his age; thought to have been banished to Egypt for lampooning a favourite of the Emperor Domitian. An avid reader of the classical authors, Trollope liked to sport with incidental meanings created by the crossover of sounds between Latin and English. Writing to John Merivale about a motto for their Goose and Glee Club (mentioned in LCB XLII), he puns on Juvenal's ‘Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator’ (‘The traveller with an empty purse will sing in...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c.55)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,272 words

...Juvenal (7.24, 7.91, 12.18) during the years 92–102 ce . Specific dates derived from Juvenal's Satires include the death of Domitian in 96 ce (4.153), the prosecution of Marius Priscus in 100 ce (1.49–50), and the consulship of Juncus in 127 ce (15.27). This scanty evidence suggests that Juvenal was writing during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian; Satire 7 may actually herald Hadrian's accession in 117 ce . Ronald Syme tentatively suggests an African origin; that Juvenal names no patron suggests that he was of high social status. Juvenal's...

Juvenal

Juvenal (fl. ad 100)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
121 words

... ( Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis ) ( fl. ad 100 ) The greatest Roman satiric poet, author of sixteen satires. Nothing definite is known about his life. The earlier Satires are unsurpassed in their expression of hatred and disgust; their caustic style is often contrasted with that of the urbane and witty Horace. Satire 3, translated by Samuel Johnson as London , is a bitter tirade on the misery of being poor in Rome. Satire 10, also translated by Johnson , reveals with grim irony the vanity of human wishes. Other English imitators include Joseph...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Reference library

Susanna Morton Braund

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,041 words

... Plato and the Hellenistic philosophical schools); and rhetorical set-pieces (consolation, persuasion, farewell speech). Juvenal’s Satires apparently present reassuring entertainment for the Roman male élite audience. However, inconsistencies written into the texts allow alternative views of Juvenal’s speakers as riddled with bigotry (chauvinism, misogyny, homophobia) or as cynically superior. In literary history, Juvenal’s significance is in bringing to fullest development the indignant speaker: his ‘savage indignation’ had a lasting influence on...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Quick reference

Susanna Morton Braund

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,014 words

... Plato and the Hellenistic philosophical schools); and rhetorical setpieces (consolation, persuasion, farewell speech). Juvenal's Satires apparently present reassuring entertainment for the Roman male élite audience. However, inconsistencies written into the texts allow alternative views of Juvenal's speakers as riddled with bigotry (chauvinism, misogyny, homophobia) or as cynically superior. In literary history, Juvenal's significance is in bringing to fullest development the indignant speaker: his ‘savage indignation’ had a lasting influence on...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
878 words

...paradoxes, and trenchant questions makes Juvenal a favourite mine for quotations, e.g. mens sāna in corpore sānō and quis custōdiet ipsōs custōdēs? : ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’ and ‘who guards the guards?’. Juvenal's Satires apparently present reassuring entertainment for the Roman male élite audience. However, inconsistencies written into the texts allow alternative views of Juvenal's speakers as riddled with bigotry (chauvinism, misogyny, homophobia) or as cynically superior. In literary history, Juvenal's significance is in bringing to fullest...

Juvenal

Juvenal (100)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
198 words

... ( Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis ) ( fl. ad 100 ) The greatest Roman satiric poet, author of sixteen satires, the last one incomplete. Nothing definite is known about his life. In Satire 1, a friend urges that writing satire is too dangerous; Juvenal replies that it is hard not to write satire in Rome, but he will attack only those who are safely dead. Satire 3, translated by Samuel Johnson as London , is a bitter tirade on the misery of being poor in Rome. The lengthy Satire 6 is an onslaught on women as extravagant, cruel, false, lecherous. Satire...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Reference library

Susanna Morton Braund

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,166 words

... (2nd edn. 1931), W. V. Clausen (OCT, rev. 1992). Commentary E. Courtney , A Commentary on the Satires of Juvenal (1980). Translation N. Rudd , Juvenal: The Satires (1991); S. Braund , Juvenal and Persius (Loeb, 2004). Index verborum M. Dubrocard (1976). Scholia vetustiora Ed. P. Wessner (1931). Studies W. S. Anderson , Essays on Roman Satire (1982); J. C. Bramble , CHCL 2. 597–623; S. H. Braund , Beyond Anger: A Study of Juvenal's Third Book of Satires (1988); A. Richlin , The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor ...

Juvenal

Juvenal (d. 458)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
114 words

... ( d. 458 ), Bp. of Jerusalem from c. 422 . His main ambition seems to have been to make Jerusalem into a ‘ Patriarchal see’. He sided with Cyril of Alexandria against Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus in 431, but he failed to gain Cyril's support for his claims. In the Eutychian controversy he supported Dioscorus at the Latrocinium in 449 but at the Council of Chalcedon ( 451 ) he voted for his condemnation. This Council recognized Jerusalem as a Patriarchal see with jurisdiction over Palestine. In parts of the E. Church he is...

Juvenal

Juvenal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
359 words

...visible in the everyday cultural life of Rome. Juvenal could therefore comment on the prospects of ex-slaves as well as the downfall of powerful dynasties, on the position of wealthy freedmen and the condition of the politics of the day. His satires have provided what specialist classical scholars agree are ‘two of the best known Latin tags, panem et circenses (“bread and races”, 10.81) and mens sana in corpore sano (“a healthy mind in a healthy body”, 10.356)’ ( William Barr , ‘Introduction’ to Juvenal: The Satires , Oxford, Oxford University Press, ...

Juvenal

Juvenal (458)   Reference library

Frances Young

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
298 words

... (d. 458 ) Bp of Jerusalem from c . 422 . Nothing is known of his early life. His chief ambition seems to have been to make Jerusalem into a ‘ patriarchal see’ at the expense of the metropolitical see of Caesarea and the ‘patriarchal see’ of Antioch . For this purpose he sided with Cyril , bp of Alexandria, against Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus in 431, asserting that the bp of Antioch (John) ‘ought to have obeyed the apostolic see of Jerusalem, by which the throne of Antioch should be corrected and judged’. But Cyril, though glad of...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c.ad 60–c.140)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
167 words

...0 Juvenal c. ad 60 – c. 140 Roman satirist Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes? Who would put up with the Gracchi complaining about subversion? referring to the Roman tribune Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (163–133 bc ) and his brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (153–121 bc ), who were responsible for radical social and economic legislation, passed against the wishes of the senatorial class Satires complaining about subversion Gracchi complaining about Sed quis custodiet ipsos Custodes? But who is to guard the guards themselves? Satires...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c.ad 60–c.140)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
372 words

...0 Juvenal c. ad 60 – c. 140 Roman satirist Must I always be a mere listener? Satires no. 1, l. 1 It's hard not to write satire. Satires no. 1, l. 30 hard not to write satire Honesty is praised and left to shiver. Satires no. 1, l. 74 honesty is praised praised and left to shiver praised and left to shiver Our censor's rule condemns the doves while acquitting the ravens. Satires no. 2, l. 63 (tr. N. Rudd) The misfortunes of poverty carry with them nothing harder to bear than that it makes men ridiculous. Satires no. 3, l. 152 …Omnia Romae...

Juvenal

Juvenal (60130)   Reference library

Brewer's Famous Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
200 words

...Juvenal 60 130 Roman satirist Sed quis custodiet ipsos Custodes? [But who is to guard the guards themselves?] Satires , No. 6. A key question to be asked of people in any sort of authority – who are they answerable to? Panem et circenses [Bread and circuses]. In the same work, No. 10 – on what the citizen is chiefly concerned about. It was the fashion for the Roman emperors and others in authority to bribe the citizens of Rome with public entertainments and free food, as a way of avoiding popular discontent. Circuses here means chariot races and...

Juvenal

Juvenal (c.ad 60–c.140)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
1,331 words

... Juvenal c. ad 60 – c. 140 Roman satirist Semper ego auditor tantum? Must I always be a mere listener? Satires no. 1, l. 1 always be a mere listener Difficile est saturam non scribere. It's hard not to write satire. Satires no. 1, l. 30 difficile est saturam non scribere saturam non scribere saturam non scribere hard not to write satire Probitas laudatur et alget. Honesty is praised and left to shiver. Satires no. 1, l. 74 (translation by G. G. Ramsay) Probitas laudatur et alget Probitas laudatur et alget honesty is praised praised and...

Ju'venal

Ju'venal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
373 words

...him at all. The various ancient Lives of Juvenal which survive are of late date, somewhat contradictory, and probably not reliable. They mostly agree in referring to a period of banishment, in consequence of an offence to a favourite (the actor Paris) of the emperor Domitian; it is also stated by one that he practised declamation until middle age (Martial calls him facundus , ‘eloquent’). If what Juvenal says in his Satires is literally true he was at one time poor, but later acquired a farm at Tibur (Tivoli), he could offer hospitality in his house at Rome,...

Habyarimana, Juvénal

Habyarimana, Juvénal (1937?–1994)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Juvénal 1937?–1994 Military leader and president of Rwanda. Habyarimana was born in Gisenyi in northern Rwanda into a prominent family of the Hutu ethnic group. He completed one year at Lovanium University (now the University of Kinshasa) Medical School in the former Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo ) before joining the army and enrolling in officers' training school in the Rwandan capital of Kigali . Rising quickly through the ranks, he served in a number of military roles between 1963 and 1973 , including national guard chief of...

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