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Justice versus Peace

The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic, imagined the establishment of an ideal system in ...

Justice versus Peace

Justice versus Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,401 words

... versus Peace . The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic , imagined the establishment of an ideal system in which peace would reign through justice. The two words are so often found together that it is hard to imagine one without the other. However, a question must be raised: Can peace exist without justice? If the former truly results from the latter, then peace, as the consequence of justice, is subordinate to it. Consequently, for humanity in search of peace...

Justice versus Peace

Justice versus Peace  

The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic, imagined the establishment of an ideal system in which ...
The Merry Wives of Windsor

The Merry Wives of Windsor   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,720 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1599 , but Porter’s comedy may have been influenced by Shakespeare’s rather than vice versa. A long-standing tradition regards Justice Shallow as a hostile portrait of Sir Thomas Lucy , alleged to have prosecuted the young Shakespeare for deer-poaching, though Leslie Hotson (in Shakespeare versus Shallow , 1931 ) claimed him more plausibly as a hit at the Surrey justice William Gardiner . Synopsis: 1.1 Justice Shallow calls at Master Page’s house in Windsor, hoping to recommend his foolish nephew Slender as a suitor to Page’s daughter Anne: he is...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in terms of function in economic life, it was the moral value of each class contribution that was being underlined. Middle-class activists were keen on binary oppositions which dignified their social contribution, as in the industrious versus the idle classes, the productive classes versus the parasites, the useful classes versus the useless, and they mobilized all these juxtapositions in the reform campaign. Classical political economists like David *Ricardo believed that labour created surplus value, but none the less felt that capital was the indispensable...

Gardiner, William

Gardiner, William (1531–97)   Reference library

Stanley Wells

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...William ( 1531–97 ), a wealthy and corrupt justice of the peace in Southwark. In 1596 Francis Langley , owner of the Swan theatre, accused him and his stepson William Wayte ( d. 1603 ) of endangering his life; Wayte, apparently acting as Gardiner ’s agent, countered with similar accusations against Langley and William Shakespeare . Leslie Hotson ( Shakespeare versus Shallow , 1931 ) found that Gardiner cheated Wayte of his inheritance, and proposes that in The Merry Wives of Windsor , Shakespeare satirizes Gardiner as Shallow and Wayte as...

Transitional Justice and Peace

Transitional Justice and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,801 words

...of justice and the rule of law. [ See also Accountability ; Court of Justice, International ; Criminal Court, International ; Genocide and War ; Healing, Justice and Reconciliation of ; Human Rights ; International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia ; Justice versus Peace ; Rebuilding ; Reconciliation ; Recovery after Mass Crimes ; Restorative Justice ; Tribunals and Courts, International ; Truth and Reconciliation Commissions ; Victims of Conflict, Rehabilitation of ; and War Crimes Law ] Bibliography Bell, Christine . Peace...

Catholic Peace Traditions

Catholic Peace Traditions   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,928 words

...; History of Peace Movements, Periodization of ; Humanism ; Just War ; Latin America, Peace Movements in ; Latin America, Social Justice Movements of; Madres de la Plaza de Mayo ; Northern Ireland ; Pacem in Terris ; Pacifism and Peace Meanings ; Pacifism before 1901 ; Pacifism, Critical; Pacifism in the Peace Movement ; Pacifism versus Pacificism ; Pacifist Peace Traditions ; Pax Christi International ; Pax Romana ; Peace Movements , subentry on Typologies ; Religion and Peace ; Religious Peace Doctrines, Comparative ; Saint-Pierre, Abbé...

Conflict Resolution, Peace Research, Studies, and Activism

Conflict Resolution, Peace Research, Studies, and Activism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,916 words

...for, and studying or teaching about peace, justice, and the nonviolent resolution of conflict have changed social consciousness and the status quo and have improved the global quality of life and our chances for not only survival but peace. [ See also Conflict Analysis ; Conflict and Peacebuilding ; Conflict Research, Methods of ; Conflict Studies versus Peace Studies ; Conflict Transformation ; Peace, Negative and Positive ; Peace Research ; Peace Science and the Peace Science Society ; Peace Studies ; and Peace Studies Association ] Bibliography...

United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945

United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,748 words

...causes of violence to foster better conditions for social justice and human rights. Endless in shifting variety, interrelationships, and disagreements, these categories form two ends of a spectrum: efforts to prevent or oppose war (negative peace) and attempts to create a just, equitable world (positive peace). Robust Beginnings: 1800–1850 Emerging after the War of 1812, the U.S. peace movement’s earliest landmark was the simultaneous appearance of the Massachusetts Peace Society and the New York Peace Society in 1815 . Two more societies, in Rhode Island and...

World Health Organization

World Health Organization   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,769 words

...and is essential in achieving a just peace. Focus on vulnerable groups. WHO activities targeting vulnerable groups through specific programs (for example, child and adolescent health, mental health and substance dependence, long-term care initiatives, management of noncommunicable disease, noncommunicable disease prevention and health promotion, gender and women’s health, reproductive research, HIV/AIDS, and health of indigenous people) advocate for inclusion versus exclusion, integration versus segregation, and equity versus discrimination. The main principles...

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History   Reference library

Carolyn Stephenson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,906 words

...of peace in peace research and international relations has differentially taken account of all of these aspects of the conceptualizing of peace. As with IR, there is yet no agreement among peace researchers on the meaning of or approaches to either justice or peace. However, while international relations may not wish to take the road that the majority of peace researchers have taken, defining peace, as Galtung has done, and as Wright did before him, as including both the absence of war and direct violence, and the presence of social justice, it must...

Altruistic Approaches to Peace

Altruistic Approaches to Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,351 words

...and Practice , 2d ed. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, 2006. Fry, Douglas P . ‘ Respect for the Rights of Others is Peace’: Learning Aggression versus Nonaggression among the Zapotec. American Anthropologist 94, no. 3 (1992): 621–639. Hakvoort, I ., and L. Oppenheimer . I Know What You Are Thinking: The Role-Taking Ability and Understanding of Peace and War. In How Children Understand War and Peace: A Call for International Peace Education , edited by Amiram Raviv , Louis Oppenheimer , and Daniel Bar-Tal , pp. 59–77. San Francisco:...

Peace Research

Peace Research   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
18,125 words

...itself a legitimate focus for peace research, broadly defined. For all of these reasons, micro-level research is a legitimate and useful component of peace research, as long as we are careful to avoid the pitfalls of reductionism. Peace versus Justice This issue has long been and continues to be debated within the peace research movement. When peace and justice are framed in terms of negative peace—the absence of systematic collective violence, accompanied by a sense of security that such violence is improbable—and positive peace—the prevalence of conditions...

Restorative Justice

Restorative Justice   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,374 words

...of justice as it can beneficial resolutions. [ See also Accountability ; Forgiveness ; and Justice versus Peace ] Bibliography Braithwaite, John . Crime, Shame and Reintegration . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Braithwaite, John . Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Crawford, Adam , and Tim Newburn . Youth Offending and Restorative Justice: Implementing Reform in Youth Justice . Collumpton, Devon: Willan Publishing, 2003. Dignan, James . Understanding Victims and Restorative Justice ....

Religion and Peace

Religion and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,025 words

...resist the seductive language of “god’s mission” and “god’s justice to evildoers.” The religious worldview too readily lends itself to facile “us versus them” and “good versus evil” oversimplifications of complex world events and peoples. Moral outrage and indignation tend toward illusions of self-righteousness and violent obsessions in the faithful. Under the influence of these emotive forces, violence against innocent others can be conducted in good conscience even in the name of peace and justice. Religious belief more or less explicitly encourages...

Social Injustice and Moral Exclusion

Social Injustice and Moral Exclusion   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,756 words

...does not. Expanding the scope of justice is an ongoing process that combats both overt and unseen social injustice, advances just societal institutions, and can foster a harmonious, peaceful, and more justice society. [ See also Basic Human Needs ; Dialogue Process ; Identities: Shared, Multiple, and Peace ; Interpersonal Conflict and Peace Psychology ; Justice versus Peace ; King, Martin Luther, Jr , subentry on Philosophy of Nonviolence ; Nonviolence, Theory and Practice of ; and Transitional Justice and Peace ] Bibliography Berkowitz, M. W .,...

Interpersonal Conflict and Peace Psychology

Interpersonal Conflict and Peace Psychology   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,233 words

...with a distinction that is made in the trans disciplinary field of peace studies between negative and positive peace, in which the former refers to the absence of war and the latter refers to the pursuit of social justice. To further elaborate on the scope of peace psychology, a 2 × 2 matrix can be used to distinguish between peace and violence on the one hand, and episodes versus structures on the other. Episodic violence is intermittent and kills or harms people directly, quickly, and dramatically through an acute insult to well-being. In contrast, structural...

Reassessing Truth Commissions

Reassessing Truth Commissions   Reference library

Bronwyn Leebaw

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,023 words

...Aguilar (eds.) The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Shaw, R. (2005) Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone. United States Institute of Peace Special Report 130. Sikkink, K. , and Walling, C.B. (2006) Argentina’s Contribution to Global Trends in Transitional Justice. In N. Roht-Arriaza and J. Mariezcurrena (eds.) Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 176–205. ...

Healing, Justice and Reconciliation of

Healing, Justice and Reconciliation of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,813 words

...(meaning, security, action) healing is most needed and in which, given the imperfect realities, a positive transformation will be achieved. [ See also Forgiveness ; Justice versus Peace ; Reconciliation ; and Truth and Reconciliation Commissions ] Bibliography Bole, William , Christiansen, Drew , and Hennemeyer, Robert . Forgiveness in International Politics: An Alternative Road to Peace . Washington, D.C.: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2004. Girard, René . The Scapegoat . Translated from the French by Yvonne Freccero . Baltimore:...

Peace Constitutions

Peace Constitutions   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,398 words

...1949 ). These “peace provisions” are intrinsically related to UN Charter articles 24, 43, and 106, and are designed to support, complement, and enhance the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. They are the building blocks for establishing an effective system of collective security, and need to be acknowledged as a legal basis toward this end. Although the trend toward the “constitutional abolition of war” was thus considerably advanced, the Cold War made implementation of any such blueprint for peace difficult. International Peace versus National...

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