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Justice versus Peace

The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic, imagined the establishment of an ideal system in ...

Justice versus Peace

Justice versus Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,401 words

... versus Peace . The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic , imagined the establishment of an ideal system in which peace would reign through justice. The two words are so often found together that it is hard to imagine one without the other. However, a question must be raised: Can peace exist without justice? If the former truly results from the latter, then peace, as the consequence of justice, is subordinate to it. Consequently, for humanity in search of peace...

Justice versus Peace

Justice versus Peace  

The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic, imagined the establishment of an ideal system in which ...
Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in terms of function in economic life, it was the moral value of each class contribution that was being underlined. Middle-class activists were keen on binary oppositions which dignified their social contribution, as in the industrious versus the idle classes, the productive classes versus the parasites, the useful classes versus the useless, and they mobilized all these juxtapositions in the reform campaign. Classical political economists like David *Ricardo believed that labour created surplus value, but none the less felt that capital was the indispensable...

The Merry Wives of Windsor

The Merry Wives of Windsor   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,720 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1599 , but Porter’s comedy may have been influenced by Shakespeare’s rather than vice versa. A long-standing tradition regards Justice Shallow as a hostile portrait of Sir Thomas Lucy , alleged to have prosecuted the young Shakespeare for deer-poaching, though Leslie Hotson (in Shakespeare versus Shallow , 1931 ) claimed him more plausibly as a hit at the Surrey justice William Gardiner . Synopsis: 1.1 Justice Shallow calls at Master Page’s house in Windsor, hoping to recommend his foolish nephew Slender as a suitor to Page’s daughter Anne: he is...

Peace Movements, International

Peace Movements, International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,780 words

...versus 40 percent of whites—believed that American foreign policy had a “major impact” on their lives. Whereas 66 percent of African Americans said that they opposed using military force against national state aggression—such as a hypothetical invasion of Iraq into Saudi Arabia—the use of force was permissible for many when it came to guaranteeing civil rights. The study showed that 38 percent of blacks, versus 20 percent of whites, were willing to use force to improve the standard of living in less-developed countries. Forty-five percent of blacks, versus 33...

Military Justice in Film

Military Justice in Film   Reference library

Ann B. Ching

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
10,491 words

...implications of collateral damage in the context of drone strikes. These latter two films signify an evolution in the military justice film genre that will be discussed more in “ Role of Military Justice Films in History and Society: The Evolution of Military Justice Films in the 21st Century ,” below. Military Justice Films versus Traditional Courtroom Dramas As evidenced by the historical overview above, military justice films are a fairly narrow genre within the larger category of traditional courtroom dramas. The unique nature of this genre may be...

Military Justice

Military Justice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,933 words

...gained victory in two world wars. Its imperviousness to change may have been based on the popular perception that one did not want to change military justice in time of war, and in time of peace, the need for such change had vanished. Nevertheless, by 1945 , an American generation nurtured by a long tradition of law, litigation, and rights, found these flaws no longer acceptable. Unified Code of Military Justice. In the wake of World War II, these problems could at last be remedied. After unification of the armed forces in 1947–48 under the Department of...

Juvenile Justice in United States Law

Juvenile Justice in United States Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,801 words
Illustration(s):
1

...children whose parents could not or would not educate them. The case in question involved the incarceration of Mary Ann Crouse in the Philadelphia House of Refuge. Her mother, claiming that her daughter was incorrigible, petitioned a justice of the peace to have Mary Ann committed. Without a jury trial, the justice of the peace summarily committed the girl to the refuge. Her father then petitioned for a writ of habeas corpus to have his daughter released. In a one-paragraph opinion, the court rejected the petition, declaring that since the house of refuge was...

international lawyers

international lawyers   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,667 words

...preferences, cultural backgrounds, as well as professional experiences and ambitions. In most periods, mainstream views and assumptions have been juxtaposed with typical challenges: right of sovereignty versus the interests of an ‘international community’; international security versus cosmopolitan justice; self‐determination and national autonomy versus international rules on human rights, development, and environment. Reform has proceeded through critique of earlier generations as either excessively utopian or then ignorant of the realities of an...

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...108, 937–975. Restorative Justice Online. (2005). Restorative justice sites listed alphabetically . Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.restorativejustice.org/ Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005). State v. Barnhardt, 2006 Ohio 4531; 2006 Ohio App. LEXIS 4495. Stinebrickner-Kauffman, T. (2004). Counting matters: Prison inmates, population bases, and ‘one person, one vote' . Virginia Journal Social Policy and Law , 11, 229–305. Umbreit, M. , Coates, R. B. , & Vos, B. (2004). Restorative justice versus community justice: Clarifying a muddle or...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Mark Naftalin

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,162 words

...response has been multilateral, first by the AU and then by the experimental AU–UN hybrid operation. In addition to accusations of genocide, Darfur represents the first time a sitting head of state has been indicted by the ICC, which has provoked a normative discussion on justice versus peace. Equally, the humanitarian response has, at times, re-ignited traditional debates over the politicization of humanitarianism and impartiality, neutrality, and independence, especially following the Sudanese government's March 2009 expulsion of thirteen international aid...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Mark Naftalin

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,162 words

...response has been multilateral, first by the AU and then by the experimental AU–UN hybrid operation. In addition to accusations of genocide, Darfur represents the first time a sitting head of state has been indicted by the ICC, which has provoked a normative discussion on justice versus peace. Equally, the humanitarian response has, at times, reignited traditional debates over the politicization of humanitarianism and impartiality, neutrality, and independence, especially following the Sudanese government’s March 2009 expulsion of thirteen international aid...

Tenth Amendment

Tenth Amendment   Reference library

Forrest McDonald, Robert M. Hardaway, and Adisa Hubjer

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,041 words

...Tenth Amendment will inevitably continue to be a hot topic before the Supreme Court justices, for inasmuch as the states continue to exist as distinct political and legal entities and the Tenth Amendment remains a part of the Constitution, the tensions arising from dual and divided sovereignty remain. See also Dual Federalism ; Federalism ; State Sovereignty and States' Rights . Raoul Berger , Federalism: The Founders' Design (1987). E. S. Corwin , The Commerce Power Versus States Rights (1936). William E. Leuchtenburg , The Tenth Amendment over Two...

Organization of American States (OAS)

Organization of American States (OAS)   Reference library

Charles M. DOBBS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
1,367 words

...Nations to promote hemispheric peace, supporting economic development, encouraging cultural and social interactions, and protecting the sovereignty and independence of American states. Article 1 of the Charter states that aims of the Organization and its members is “to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence.” Article 2 outlines eight essential purposes: a) to strengthen the peace and security of the continent; ...

Crime, Justice, and Anglo-American Comics

Crime, Justice, and Anglo-American Comics   Reference library

Thomas Giddens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,030 words

...and Strobl construct an image of the medium’s dominant forms of justice in mainstream U.S. publications. Against their hypothesis that street and low-level criminal activity would dominate, they found a prevalence of organized crime and state corruption ( 2006 , pp. 314–315). In terms of criminal justice ideology, the dominant ethos discovered was one of retribution by the “good” against the actions of the “evil,” and a desire to return to an idyllic or nostalgic social order of peace and certainty, generally supportive of the need for U.S. global...

Courts

Courts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
10,134 words

...the International Court of Justice concerning passage through the Great Belt ( Finland versus Denmark ) and the case before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea concerning land reclamation in Johore Strait (Malaysia versus Singapore ). In both instances, the ensuing negotiations were successful, resulting in the withdrawal of the merits from adjudication. In some instances, decisions have had a major impact upon third parties generally, and especially upon coastal states. Following the International Court of Justice’s decision in 1953 that ...

Vienna, Congress of

Vienna, Congress of   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,914 words

... Holy Alliance ; and Napoleonic Wars . ] Bibliography Bernard, Jack F. Talleyrand: A Biography . London: Collins, 1973. Cooper, Duff . Talleyrand . London: Arrow, 1958. Dupont, Christophe , and Patrick Audebert-Lasrochas . “The Congress of Vienna Negotiations.” In Peace versus Justice: Negotiating Forward- and Backward-looking Outcomes , edited by I. William Zartman and Victor Kremenyuk . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. Nicolson, Harold . The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity, 1812–1822 . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1946. Orieux,...

Natural Law

Natural Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,764 words

...itself that constitutional rights are not limited to those expressly enumerated in the text but may include natural rights as well. Natural Rights versus Legal-Positivist Conceptions of the Constitution. Calder v. Bull , 3 U.S. (3 Dall.) 386 ( 1798 ) is commonly viewed as the classicus locus of a recurring debate between natural rights and legal-positivist conceptions of the Constitution. Justice Samuel Chase proclaimed: “An act of the legislature (for I cannot call it a law) contrary to the great first principles of the social compact cannot be...

Private War

Private War   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...eat with—and to stab with,” as Michael A. Mullet has noted. As a consequence, there are at least two important problems to understanding what constituted “private wars” in the Middle Ages. In the first place, it is difficult to distinguish what would be considered a “private war” versus a vendetta, a blood feud, or a faida— various names for codified violence between kin groups that varied in intensity, reiteration, and duration. Some anthropological viewpoints treat private wars and faida as one phenomenon, as in the work of Jacques Le Goff and Dominique...

Anglo-Saxon Law

Anglo-Saxon Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
6,603 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the profits of justice rather than control of court or custom: hamsocn (housebreaking), grithbryce (breach of peace), and foresteall (assault or waylaying) are the most common. Rights appear in texts only as they drew royal attention. By the end of the period, rights begin to look less particularistic, more general, and their wider acceptance as the possession of all free persons is clearer. Canute's decree that “all men, both poor and rich, shall be regarded as entitled to the benefit of law” reveals a right of access to justice with no geographic...

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