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Julian

Subject: Religion

(c. 386–454), Pelagian theologian, briefly Bp. of Eclanum, in Apulia. Born in Apulia of Christian parents, he married before he was ordained. In 416 he became Bp. of Eclanum. On ...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

David L. Weis, Patricia Barthalow Koch, Diane Baker, Sandy Bargainnier, Sarah C. Conklin, Martha Cornog, Richard Cross, Marilyn Fithian, Jeannie Forrest, Andrew D. Forsythe, Robert T. Francoeur, Barbara Garris, Patricia Goodson, William E. Hartmann, Robert O. Hawkins, Linda L. Hendrixson, Barrie J. Highby, Ariadne (Ari) Kane, Sharon E. King, Robert Morgan Lawrence, Brenda Love, Charlene L. Muehlenhard, Raymond J. Noonan, Miguel A. Pérez, Timothy Perper, Helda L. Pinzón-Pérez, Carol Queen, Herbert P. Samuels, Julian Slowinski, William Stackhouse, William R. Stayton, Mitchell S. Tepper, Raymond J. Noonan, Robert T. Francoeur, Mark O. Bigler, Walter Bockting, Peggy Clarke, Sarah C. Conklin, Al Cooper, Martha Cornog, Susan Dudley, Warren Farrell, James R. Fleckenstein, Robert T. Francoeur, Patricia Goodson, Erica Goodstone, Karen Allyn Gordon, Eric Griffin-Shelley, Robert W. Hatfield, Loraine Hutchins, Michael Hyde, Ariadne (Ari) Kane, Patricia Barthalow Koch, John Money, Charlene L. Muehlenhard, Raymond J. Noonan, Miguel A. Pérez, Helda L. Pinzón-Pérez, William Prendergast, Ruth Rubenstein, Herbert P. Samuels, William Taverner, David L. Weis, C. Christine Wheeler, and Walter L. Williams

Contiuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
236,429 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., Ed.D.; Sharon E. King , M.S.Ed.; Robert Morgan Lawrence , D.C.; Brenda Love ; Charlene L. Muehlenhard , Ph.D.; Raymond J. Noonan , Ph.D.; Miguel A. Pérez , Ph.D.; Timothy Perper , Ph.D.; Helda L. Pinzón-Pérez , Ph.D.; Carol Queen , Ph.D.; Herbert P. Samuels , Ph.D.; Julian Slowinski , Psy.D.; William Stackhouse , Ph.D.; William R. Stayton , Th.D.; and Mitchell S. Tepper , M.P.H. * Updates coordinated by Raymond J. Noonan , Ph.D., and Robert T. Francoeur , Ph.D., with comments and updates by Mark O. Bigler L.C.S.W.,...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
58 words

... 1881: 1079; Cornwall. Norman, English: relationship name from the Old French and Middle English personal name Julian , which in the medieval period was both male and female. Latin Julianus , from Julius , the name of a Roman gens , and Juliana , the feminine form, were both names of saints, and both names were popular, the latter particularly as Gillian...

Julian

Julian (331–63)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
48 words

... (or Julian the Apostate ; full name Flavius Claudius Julianus ) ( c . 331–63 ad ) Roman emperor ( 360–63 ), nephew of Constantine . He restored paganism as the state cult in place of Christianity, but this move was reversed after his death on campaign against the Persians....

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Timothy E. Gregory and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
560 words

...(London–New York 1913; rp. 1930), with Eng. tr. R. Browning , The Emperor Julian (Berkeley–Los Angeles 1976). G.W. Bowersock , Julian the Apostate (Cambridge, Mass., 1978). P. Athanassiadi-Fowden , Julian and Hellenism (Oxford 1981). E. Pack , Städte und Steuern in der Politik Julians: Untersuchungen zu den Quellen eines Kaiserbildes (Brussels 1986). N.H. Baynes , The Death of Julian the Apostate in a Christian Legend , JRS 27 (1937) 22–29. M. Wegner , Die Bildnisse des Julian, in H.P. L'Orange , M. Wegner , Das spätantike Herrscherbild von...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Diplomat under Justinian I , praised by Choricius of Gaza in a panegyric of Julian’s brother Summus . In 530 / 1 Julian led an embassy to the Christian rulers of the Himyarites and Aksum , seeking aid against the Persian Empire ( Procopius , Persian , I, 20, 9–13). John Malalas drew on the ambassador’s account of the ‘Indian emperor’, who received him wearing a gold-threaded linen loincloth and standing on a gilded carriage borne by four elephants surrounded by flute-players (XVIII, 56, copied by Theophanes , am 6064, who names ...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Rowland B. E. Smith

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
642 words

...of choice detachments to the east the army mutinied and in February 360 , probably with tacit prompting, proclaimed Julian Augustus . Civil war ensued in 361, but Constantius’ fortuitous death late that year soon ended it and Julian, now publicly declaring his paganism, entered Constantinople unopposed in December. A purge of the imperial court quickly followed, drastically reducing its officials and staff. In his brief reign Julian showed remarkable energy in pursuit of highly ambitious aims. An immediate declaration of general religious toleration...

Julian

Julian ((fl. mid-sixth century CE),)   Reference library

salim faraji

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
803 words

...Christian missions in Nubia. Julian convinced Empress Theodora that it would be in the best interest of the Empire to secure the Nubians as Christian allies. The Empress agreed wholeheartedly with his recommendations, and Julian was sent to the king of Nobadia. The primary historical source for a description of Julian’s missionary endeavors in Nubia is John of Ephesus’s sixth-century text Ecclesiastical History , which was originally written in Greek but survives only in a Syriac translation. John of Ephesus recounts that Julian was an elderly presbyter who...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Simon Samuel Ford

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Julianus son of Sabarus, rebel 529 . Recognized leader of the Samaritan revolt in 529 , crowned in Neapolis , where he presided over chariot races. Julian fled from a Roman army led by Theodore , Dux Palaestinae , but was apprehended and killed, and his head and diadem were sent to the Emperor Justinian I . Simon Samuel Ford PLRE IIIA, Julianus 3. R. Pummer , Early Christian Authors on Samaritans and Samaritanism (2002), 259–76, 284–95, and...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...contain. It is now called old style . See also calendar ; july . Julian of Norwich A religious recluse and mystic ( c. 1342– c. 1413 ), who recorded her visions in Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love . Julian was formerly a woman’s name as well as a man’s. Julian the Apostate (Greek apostanai , ‘to stand apart’) Flavius Claudius Julianus ( 332–363 ad ), Roman emperor and nephew of Constantine the Great. He was so called from his attempts to restore paganism, having abandoned Christianity at about the age of 20. He set an example by the austerity of his...

Julian

Julian (331/32 –363ce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,247 words

... ( 331/32 –363 ce ), Roman emperor ( 361–363 ), known as “Julian the Apostate.” Life. Flavius Claudius Julianus—the future emperor Julian—was born at Constantinople late in the reign of Constantine the Great, in either 331 or (less likely) 332 . His father was a half brother of Constantine, and rivalries within the emergent Constantinian dynasty greatly affected the circumstances of Julian's childhood and youth; his father was murdered in the dynastic intrigues that followed Constantine's death in 337 , and Julian's upbringing thereafter was warily...

Julian

Julian   Quick reference

Rowland B. E. Smith

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
625 words

...of choice detachments to the east the army mutinied and in February 361 , probably with tacit prompting, proclaimed Julian Augustus . Constantius' death late that year averted civil war and Julian , now publicly declaring his paganism, entered Constantinople unopposed in December. A purge of the imperial court quickly followed, drastically reducing its officials and staff. In his brief reign Julian showed remarkable energy in pursuit of highly ambitious aims. An immediate declaration of general religious toleration foreshadowed a vigorous programme...

Julian

Julian   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
567 words

...aim. Julian's military ambitions centred on an invasion of Persia . To prepare his expedition he moved in June 362 to Antioch, where his relations with the mainly Christian population deteriorated markedly during his stay. The expedition set out in March 363 , but despite some early successes it was already in serious difficulties when Julian was fatally wounded in a mêlée in June 363 . He left no heir (Helena had died childless in 360 , and Julian did not remarry), and after his death the reforms he had initiated came to nothing. Julian's personal...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Peter Bell

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Praefectus Urbi Constantinopolitanae ( 580 ), after governing the Quaestura Exercitus . When investigating riots in Constantinople which followed the acquittal of alleged pagans , he punished Jews and heretics severely but treated Christians leniently. He was, however, replaced following allegations that he was himself a pagan. Peter Bell PLRE III, Julianus...

Julian

Julian (332–63)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
50 words

... ( 332–63 ). Roman emperor from 361 , known in Christian tradition as ‘the Apostate’. His religious policy was to oppose Christianity and promote paganism. He also wrote Against the Christians (now lost). The story that he died with the words ‘Vicisti, Galilaeeʿ (Thou hast conquered, Galilean!’) is a late...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
468 words

...brother's murder Julian reluctantly gave up his studies when Constantius II , who had no male heirs, summoned him, proclaimed him Caesar ( see Augustus, the ), put him in charge of Gaul and Britain, and married him to his sister Helena ( 355 ). He was a successful general and very popular with his soldiers, whose hardships he shared. When Constantius demanded some picked troops to be sent to the eastern empire Julian's men mutinied and proclaimed him Augustus ( 361 ). Before Julian could reach Constantinople, Constantius died. Julian became sole emperor,...

Julian

Julian (386–454)   Reference library

Dominic Keech

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
492 words

...88 a; 1977). A. Bruckner , Julian von Eclanum, sein Leben und seine Lehre (TU 15. 3; 1897). A. Bruckner , Die vier Bücher Julians von Aeclanum an Turbantius (Berlin, 1910). J. Lössl , Julian von Aeculanum: Studien zu seinem Leben, seinem Werk, seiner Lehre und ihrer Überlieferung (Supplements to VC , 40; 2001), with full bibl. G. Morin , ‘Un ouvrage restitué à Julien d’Éclane’, R. Bén . 30 (1913), 1–24. A. Vaccari , SJ, Un commento a Giobbe di Giuliano di Eclano (Rome, 1915). G. Bouwman , SVD, Des Julian von Aeclanum Kommentar zu den...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,800 words

...the edict. It has been supposed, since Servius Cornelius and Julian shared the same Cornelian family name, that Servius Cornelius was a relative of Julian's and possibly the Servius Cornelius Salvidienus Orfitus who was consul in 149. There is no evidence that he was a jurist. Bauman supposes that, if his involvement in the project is accepted, the consolidation must have been an official project; on the contrary, the fact that Julian chose an unqualified relative to assist him suggests that he undertook the task privately with such assistance as he...

Julian

Julian   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
90 words

... US frequency (2010): 15520 1 English and German; Spanish ( Julián ): from a personal name, Latin Iulianus , a derivative of Iulius (see Julius ), which was borne by a number of early Christian saints. Compare English Gillian . 2 French (southern): from a variant of the personal name Julien and, in North America, (also) an altered form of this. History: The surname Julian of French origin (see 2 above) is listed along with its original form(s) (St.) Julien in the (US) National Huguenot Society’s register of qualified Huguenot...

Julian Romance

Julian Romance   Reference library

Jan Willem Drijvers

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Romance Christian polemical work of historical fiction directed against the Emperor Julian ( 361–3 ), important in forming a negative image of Julian. It consists of three parts. The first, short and fragmentarily preserved, describes Julian taking over the government from Constantine I and his son. The second part, set in Rome , relates Julian’s attempts to have Eusebius, Bishop of Rome, renounce Christianity. The third and longest part, set in the East, recounts Julian’s war with Shapur II and his persecution of Christianity. His counterpart...

Julian calendar

Julian calendar   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
49 words

... calendar . The calendar in use since the time of Julius Caesar until the Gregorian calendar was introduced into Catholic Europe in 1582 and into Britain in 1752 . By the time that it was abandoned in Britain, the Julian calendar was 11 days out of line with the...

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