## Von Neumann, John (1903–57) Quick reference

### World Encyclopedia

... Neumann, John ( 1903–57 ) US mathematician , b. Budapest . He left Hungary to teach at Princeton University ( 1930–33 ), and then at the Institute of Advanced Studies. In mathematics, Von Neumann helped to develop game theory . His early contribution to quantum theory was followed by work on the atomic bomb at Los Alamos. Von Neumann is chiefly celebrated for his role in the early development of computers . One of his first designs was used to test ( 1952 ) the first hydrogen...

## von Neumann, John (1903–57) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

... Neumann, John ( Margittai Neumann János Lajos) ( 1903–57 ) Hungarian -born US mathematician . Already a noted mathematician, von Neumann emigrated to the USA in 1930 and joined the faculty of Princeton University. His major contribution to computer science was his ‘First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC’ ( 1945 ), which described an architecture that has since been regarded as standard for digital computers ( see EDVAC ; von Neumann machine ). However, this was only a part of his life’s work, which also included major contributions to game theory,...

## Neumann, John Von (1903–1957) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to American Military History

... missiles . Von Neumann preferred behind‐the‐scenes influence to the popular celebrity of an Albert Einstein or an Edward Teller , and his wide grasp of science and technology made him adept in that role. [See also Consultants to the Military ; Disciplinary Views of War: History of Science and Technology ; Operations Research ; Science, Technology, War, and the Military. ] Steve Heims , John von Neumann and Norbert Weiner: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death , 1980. William Aspray , John von Neumann and the Origins of...

## Von Neumann, John (1903–1957) Reference library

*Thomas J. Bergin, Elspeth Knewstubb, and Hugh Richard Slotten*

### The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

...Aspray, William . John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990. Dieudonné, J. “Von Neumann, Johann (or John).” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 14, pp. 88–92. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Israel, Giorgio , and Ana Millán Gasca . The World as a Mathematical Game: John von Neumann and Twentieth Century Science . Science Networks, Historical Studies, vol. 38. Translated by Ian McGilvray . Basel and Boston: Birkhäuser, 2009. Taub, A. H. , ed. John von Neumann: Collected Works ....

## Neumann, John von (1903–1957) Reference library

### Dictionary of the Social Sciences

..., John von ( 1903–1957 ) Although primarily a mathematician, von Neumann's contributions to game theory has had a major impact on the social sciences—especially in economics. Game theory makes it possible to formulate and solve complex problems involving strategic behavior. The game theoretic approach is now widespread in the study of industrial organization, the economics of research and development, political economy, and a number of other fields. John (or Jansci) von Neumann was born in Budapest and published his first mathematical paper when he was...

## Von Neumann, John Reference library

*Thomas J. Bergin*

### The Oxford Companion to United States History

...Von Neumann, John ( 1903–1957 ), computer pioneer, mathematician, government consultant. Born in Budapest, John von Neumann received his doctorate in mathematics with minors in experimental physics and chemistry from the University of Budapest in 1926 . He came to Princeton University as a visiting lecturer in 1930 and three years later became professor of mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. His Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (with Oskar Morgenstern) appeared in 1944 and the English translation of a work published...

## Neumann, John von Reference library

*Wilfrid Hodges*

### The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

..., John von ( 1903–57 ). American mathematician born in Budapest. His genius ranged from logic to atomic energy. He introduced the Foundation Axiom of set theory , which excludes ‘paradoxical’ sets such as those which are members of themselves. Building on Alan Turing's idea that a program is a form of data, his blueprint for the first electronic digital computers was the influential ‘von Neumann architecture’, now criticized because it does not allow parallelism. The theory of games is largely his creation. With Oskar Morgenstern he laid the...

## von Neumann, John (1903–1957) Quick reference

### Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

... Neumann, John ( 1903–1957 ) Hungarian-born US mathematician, creator of the theory of games and pioneer in the development of the modern computer. Born in Budapest, the son of a wealthy banker, von Neumann was educated at the universities of Berlin, Zürich, and Budapest, where he obtained his PhD in 1926 . After teaching briefly at the universities of Berlin and Hamburg, von Neumann moved to the USA in 1930 to a chair in mathematical physics at Princeton. In 1933 , he joined the newly formed Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton as one of its...

## Von Neumann, John Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Scientists

... Neumann, John (1903–1957) Hungarian–American mathematician John (originally Johann) Von Neumann was born in Budapest, Hungary, and studied at the University of Berlin, the Zurich Institute of Technology, and the University of Budapest, where he obtained his doctorate in 1927 . He was Privatdozent (nonstipendiary lecturer) at Berlin ( 1928–29 ) and taught at Hamburg ( 1929–30 ). He left Europe in 1930 to work in Princeton, first at the university and later at the Institute for Advanced Study. From 1943 he was a consultant on the atomic-bomb project....

## Neumann, John von (1903–57) Reference library

### The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

...Sukhamoy , and Goodwin, Richard (eds.), John von Neumann and Modern Economics (Oxford, 1989). Heims, Steve J. , John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, MA, 1980). Kuhn, Harold W. and Tucker, Albert W. , ‘ John von Neumann's Work in the Theory of Games and Mathematical Economics, ’ Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (1958) vol, 64, no. 3, part 2, pp. 100–22. Leonard, Robert J. , ‘ From Parlor Games to Social Science: von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory,...

## Von Neumann, John Reference library

*Frank George*

### The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

...millions of words. The work fitted in with that of Alan Turing . Von Neumann worked primarily from the standpoint of the engineer and was concerned with the hardware realization, while Turing worked on the algorithmic approach to define what was computable. The first four generations of computers are now called Von Neumann machines since they all followed the essential features of Von Neumann's earliest design; as a result nearly all the computer languages in existence are essentially Von Neumann languages. The most famous of his many contributions to...

## Von Neumann, John (1903–57) Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

...Von Neumann, John ( 1903–57 ) Mathematician and polymath who made important contributions to a wide range of areas of pure and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and economics. He was born in Budapest but lived in the United States from 1930 , where he would become involved with the Manhattan Project. In applied mathematics, he was one of the founders of optimization theory and the theory of games . Within pure mathematics , his work in functional analysis is important, and through a Hilbert space approach to quantum theory he was...

## John Von Neumann (1903–57) Reference library

### The Oxford Dictionary of American Quotations (2 ed.)

...John Von Neumann 1903 – 57 In mathematics, you don't understand things, you just get used to them. This was von Neumann's reply to a young physicist who said he didn't understand the method that von Neumann suggested for solving a particularly knotty problem at the government's Los Alamos, New Mexico, laboratory, where von Neumann served as a consultant following World War II observation, cited in Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu Li Masters ...

## John von Neumann (1903–57) Reference library

### Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

...0John0von John von Neumann 1903 – 57 Hungarian -born American mathematician and computer pioneer In mathematics you don't understand things. You just get used to them. Gary Zukav The Dancing Wu Li Masters (1979) In mathematics you don't don't understand things get used to...

## John von Neumann (1903–57) Reference library

### Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations (3 ed.)

...0Johnvon John von Neumann 1903 – 57 Hungarian -born American mathematician and computer pioneer In mathematics you don't understand things. You just get used to them. Gary Zukav The Dancing Wu Li Masters (1979) In mathematics you don't don't understand things get used to...

## John von Neumann (1903–57) Quick reference

### Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

...0John0von John von Neumann 1903 – 57 Hungarian -born American mathematician and computer pioneer Truth…is much too complicated to allow anything but approximations. ‘The Mathematician’ in R. B. Heywood (ed.) The Works of the Mind (1947) In mathematics you don't understand things. You just get used to them. Gary Zukav The Dancing Wu Li Masters (1979) In mathematics you don't don't understand things get used to...

## Neumann, John Louis von (1903–57) Reference library

### The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

..., John Louis von ( 1903–57 ) American mathematician , computer pioneer , and founder of game theory , born in Budapest, Hungary . As World War II approached, von Neumann, then at Princeton, began focusing his study on ballistics, explosives, and shock wave dynamics. He was one of the scientists on the Manhattan Project who perfected the implosion trigger for an atomic bomb. At the same time he began promoting the use of computers, which were then primitive, for military and scientific research. After the war von Neumann served on the Atomic...

## Von Neumann, John Louis (1903–57) Reference library

### The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

...Computing (Cambridge, Mass., 1990). Bernstein, Peter L. Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk (New York, 1996). Glimm, James, John Impagliazzo, and Isadore Singer, eds. The Legacy of John von Neumann (Providence, R.I., 1990). Macrae, Norman . John von Neumann (New York, 1992). Ulam, Stanislaw M. “ John von Neumann, 1903–1957, ” Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 64 (1958): 1–64. Von Plato, Jan . Creating Modern Probability: Its Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, UK, 1994). Thomas...

## Neumann, John (johann) Von (1903–1957) Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

...Memorial Papers on John von Neumann , Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 64 (1958): 3, 2. Steve J. Heims , John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (1980). William Aspray , John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing (1990). James Glimm , John Impagliazzo , and Isadore Singer , eds., The Legacy of John Von Neumann , Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics, vol. 50 (1990). William Poundstone , Prisoner's Dilemma , rep. (1993). Norman Macrae , John von Neumann: The Scientific...

## Neumann, John von Reference library

### The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

..., John von Usually alphabetized as *von Neumann...