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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Subject: Literature

(1749–1832), spent most of his life in Weimar, occupying positions of increasing importance in the government until 1786. In 1791 he was appointed director of the Weimar court ...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
103 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) German poet , dramatist , novelist , and statesman . While studying law at Strasbourg, Herder inspired him to appreciate Shakespeare . Goethe's first play, Götz von Berlichingen ( 1773 ), was in the tradition of Sturm und Drang . His epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther ( 1774 ) won him international fame. His visits to Italy ( 1786–88 , 1790 ) fired his enthusiasm for classicism, evidenced in the historical drama Egmont ( 1788 ). Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ( 1796 )...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
219 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ). Germany's most distinguished poet and a scientist, Goethe was born in Frankfurt am Main. He made discoveries in comparative anatomy, especially on the skull, and in botany showing that leaves are the characteristic form of which all other parts of plants are variations. He vigorously attacked Newton's theory of light and colour, and although here he was incorrect he did point out important colour contrast effects—‘Goethe's shadows’. These are shadows cast by coloured lights, and they appear the complementary colour of...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
114 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) German man of letters . As a philosopher the great writer is mainly interesting as an influence on others, particularly Schiller and Schelling . Goethe was influenced by Spinoza ’s pantheism, Leibniz ’s panpsychism, and the moral philosophy of Kant , but he confessed his own lack of a ‘proper organ for philosophy’; something of his lack of rigour can be seen in the remark that ‘we are pantheists when we study nature, polytheists when we write poetry, monotheists in our morality’. However his work on colour ,...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von (1749)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,029 words

...Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von Goethes Werke . Hamburger Ausgabe. 14 vols. Edited by Erich Trunz . Hamburg, 1948–1960. Translations Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von Botanical Writings . Translated by Bertha Mueller . Honolulu, 1952. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von Elective Affinities . Translated by Elizabeth Mayer and Louise Bogan . Chicago, 1963. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von Essays on Art and Literature . Edited by John Gearey , translated by Ellen von Nardroff and Ernest H. von Nardroff . New York, 1986. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe on Art...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
370 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) German polymath , towering figure of the Aufklärung ( see enlightenment ), celebrated particularly for his poetry. His visit (1770) to Strasbourg sparked the idea that Gothic (epitomized in the Cathedral there) was a symbol of the German national ideal, prompting his Von deutscher Baukunst (1770–3), in which he wrote glowingly of the achievements of von Steinbach . Profoundly influenced by Edward Young ’s Night Thoughts , he became interested in Youngian themes. He often visited the Gartenreich ...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
439 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) Germany's most celebrated poet, also a dramatist, novelist, and scientist. Born in Frankfurt am Main, he spent most of his life at the court of Weimar. His Italian journey ( 1786–8 ) marked a turning point in his life. In England Goethe initially gained a reputation as a dangerously immoral writer: his first novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers ( 1774 : The Sorrows of Young Werther ), caused outrage for its supposed defence of suicide. ( See Wertherism .) Goethe's most celebrated work in England, the first part of...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) German poet , novelist , and dramatist Götz of Berlichingen with the Iron Hand [ Götz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand ] ( 1773 ) Drama Clavigo ( 1774 ) Drama The Sorrows of Young Werther [ Die Leiden des jungen Werther ] ( 1774 ) Fiction Iphigenia inTauris [ Iphigenie auf Tauris ] ( 1787 ) Drama Egmont ( 1788 ) Drama Torquato Tasso ( 1790 ) Drama Reynard the Fox [ Reineke Fuchs ] ( 1794 ) Poetry Roman Elegies [ Römische Elegien; in Schiller's Die Horen ] ( 1795 ) Poetry Wilhelm...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
220 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( b Frankfurt , 28 Aug. 1749 ; d Weimar , 22 Mar. 1832 ). German writer , scientist , patron , and amateur artist , one of the giants of European culture. Throughout his career he devoted much time to the study of painting and was a prolific draughtsman. Although his own talent as an artist was modest, his writings were influential on the visual arts, particularly in the growth of Romanticism . Initially he stressed the role of passion in art, but after visiting Italy in 1786–8 he had a greater appreciation of the classical...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von (1749–1832)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,545 words

...Beutin, Wolfgang, et al Deutsche Literaturgeschichte: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart . Stuttgart, 1979. Popular history of German literature, using modern taxonomy regarding the Enlightenment. Boyle, Nicholas . Goethe: The Poet and the Age . 3 vols. Oxford, 1991. The most recent and most complete biography of Goethe, considered the standard Goethe biography in Germany. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von . Goethe's Collected Works . Edited by Victor Lange et al. 12 vols. Boston and New York, 1983–1988. The most complete collection of Goethe's works in...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

Ruth B. Bottigheimer

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature
Length:
769 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) Germany ’s Olympian poet and dramatist , Goethe turned to literary fairy tales on several occasions in mid-life, integrating them into memoirs and novels. Chapbooks read in his childhood introduced him to popular tales like ‘Fortunatus’, ‘Mélusine’ , ‘Till Eulenspiegel’, and ‘The Wandering Jew’, and storytelling at home made children’s stories like ‘The Brave Little Tailor’ familiar. In his twenties he made references in his correspondence to magical components recognizable from fairy tales such as ‘The Juniper...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
963 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) Germany 's most celebrated poet , also a dramatist , novelist , and scientist . Born in Frankfurt am Main, he studied at Leipzig and in 1775 he was invited to the court of Weimar by the duke, Karl August, and remained there for most of his life. He took on ministerial duties and was raised to the nobility in 1782 . His Italian journey ( 1786–8 ) marked a turning point in his life. On his return he was able to devote more time to his literary work and scientific investigation of nature. He undertook studies in geology...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
688 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ), German man of letters, statesman, scientist, and philosopher, who devoted much of his time and genius to the theatre. He had already written a couple of unimportant comedies when he was introduced to the works of Shakespeare . Immediately captivated by them, he expressed his enthusiasm in the first German play to be written in the Shakespearian style, Götz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand . Produced in Berlin in 1773 , this somewhat idealized portrait of a robber baron became the spearhead of the Sturm und...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (28 Aug. 1749)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
208 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( b Frankfurt, 28 Aug. 1749 ; d Weimar, 22 Mar. 1832 ). German writer, scientist, patron, and amateur artist, one of the giants of European culture. Throughout his career he devoted much time to studying art and was a prolific draughtsman. His talent in this field was modest, but his writings were influential on the visual arts, particularly in the growth of Romanticism . Initially he stressed the role of passion in art, but after visiting Italy in 1786–8 he had a greater appreciation of the classical tradition . His writings...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
756 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ). Germany's Olympian poet and dramatist , Goethe turned to literary fairy tales on several occasions in mid-life, integrating them into memoirs and novels. Chapbooks read in his childhood introduced him to popular tales like ‘Fortunatus’, ‘ Mélusine ’, ‘Till Eulenspiegel’, and ‘The Wandering Jew’, and storytelling at home made children's stories like ‘ The * Brave Little Tailor ’ familiar. In his twenties he made references in his correspondence to magical components recognizable from fairy tales such as ‘ * The...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

Dale Jacquette

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,148 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ), poet , novelist , dramatist , and scientist of the German Romantic movement . Although not a philosopher in the usual sense, Goethe was strongly influenced by his reading of Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, and Friedrich Wilhelm von Schelling, whose ideas he interpreted idiosyncratically and assimilated into his own thinking. Goethe’s contributions to aesthetics are not contained in any single theoretical treatise, but are scattered throughout his critical essays and voluminous...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,382 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ) Johann Wolfgang Goethe was born on 28 August 1749 in Frankfurt/Main. After an education by his father and private teachers, he went to Leipzig for his law studies, where he came into contact with representatives of the late Enlightenment ( Johann Christoph Gottsched ), of the sensibility movement ( Christian Fürchtegott Gellert ), of classicism in painting (Oeser) and of neology and Bible critcism in theology ( Johann David Michaelis ). Having fallen seriously ill, he returned to Frankfurt ( 1768–70 ) and was...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

Werner Habicht

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ), major German poet . Goethe ’s early attraction to Shakespeare, stimulated by Dodd ’s Beauties , Wieland ’s translations, and Herder ’s enthusiasm, influenced his historical prose tragedy Götz von Berlichingen ( 1773 ). In his novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre ( 1795 ) the semi-autobiographical protagonist is involved in a production of Hamlet . As theatre director in Weimar ( 1791–1817 ), Goethe staged some Shakespeare plays himself, including King John ( 1791 ), Hamlet ( 1795 ), King Lear ( 1796 ),...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832)   Reference library

Francis Crick

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
1,201 words

...Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749 – 1832 German naturalist, philosopher and writer The Primal Plant is going be the strangest creature in the world, which Nature herself must envy me. With this model and the key to it, it will be possible to go on for ever inventing plants and know that their existence is logical; that is to say, if they do not actually exist, they could, for they are not the shadowy phantoms of a vain imagination, but possess an inner necessity and truth. The same law will be applicable to all other living organisms. To Herder, 17 May...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
376 words

..., Johann Wolfgang von ( 1749–1832 ). Although Conrad maintained in 1913 that he had ‘never read a line of the Great Man’ either in the original or in translation ( CL , v. 174), he does in fact include an extract in the original German from Goethe’s play Torquato Tasso ( 1790 ) in Lord Jim (chapter 20), and there is also an allusion to Faust ( 1808 ) in a post- 1913 work, The Arrow of Gold . In addition, Conrad could hardly have avoided meeting Goethe’s enormous influence and legacy in indirect ways: on 14 May 1917 , he attended a performance...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
921 words

...0JohannWolfgangvon Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749 – 1832 German poet , novelist , and dramatist Everything clever has been thought of before. We must try to think it again. Maxims and Reflections (1833) ‘Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahren 1829’ Age does not make us childish, as men tell, It merely finds us children still at heart. Faust pt. 1 (1808) ‘Prologue in the Theatre’ Man will err while yet he strives. Faust pt. 1 (1808) ‘Prolog im Himmel’ Man will err err while yet he strives Deny yourself! You must deny yourself! That is the song that...

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