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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Subject: Literature

(1712–78), French philosopher: stays in London (Chiswick) 1765–6, Wootton (Staffordshire) 1766; visits Ellastone 1766; said to have stayed in Nuneham Courtenay 1767. La Nouvelle ...

Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques

Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
34 words

..., JeanJacques ( 1712–78 ), French philosopher : stays in London ( Chiswick ) 1765–6 , Wootton (Staffordshire) 1766 ; visits Ellastone 1766 ; said to have stayed in Nuneham Courtenay 1767 . La Nouvelle Héloïse 1761 , Confessions 1781 , 1788...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

Lewis C. Seifert

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature
Length:
90 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) pre-eminent Swiss Enlightenment philosopher and writer . His witty salon fairy tale ‘La Reine Fantasque’ (‘Queen Fantastic’, 1754 ) reflects many of his educational, social, and political theories. The tale is told by a druid to the arab Jalamir and recounts the capriciousness with which a queen enlists a fairy’s help to become pregnant and endow her offspring, a boy and a girl. Making effective use of narrative suspense and parenthetical dialogue, Rousseau’s story critiques monarchy, but also pokes fun at women. Lewis...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
196 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ). French philosopher of Swiss birth. Despite his training as an engraver, the visual arts had little appeal to Rousseau and he had little to say about them. Nevertheless his anticlassicist ideas and the elevation of nature over culture that lies at the heart of his writings from Julie , ou la nouvelle Héloïse ( 1761 ) to the famous Contrat social ( 1762 ) were crucial to the development of the intellectual and moral climate in which Romanticism flourished in 19th-century Europe and North America. Opposed to the rules and...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
88 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ), pre-eminent Swiss Enlightenment philosopher and writer . His witty salon fairy tale ‘La Reine Fantasque’ (‘Queen Fantastic’, 1754 ) reflects many of his educational, social, and political theories. The tale is told by a druid to the arab Jalamir and recounts the capriciousness with which a queen enlists a fairy's help to become pregnant and endow her offspring, a boy and a girl. Making effective use of narrative suspense and parenthetical dialogue, Rousseau's story critiques monarchy, but also pokes fun at women. LCS ...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques   Reference library

Virginia Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
156 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) French philosopher, writer, and composer. Although author of the anti-theatrical polemic known as the Lettre à M. d'Alembert , in the 1740s and 1750s Rousseau sought success as a playwright and composer. He began seven plays, one of which, Narcisse , was produced but failed at the Comédie-Française . His ‘heroic ballet ’ Les Muses galantes was rehearsed by the Opéra , but withdrawn before performance. Only his operetta Le Devin du village was successful when produced in 1753 . Rousseau considered himself a...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
116 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) French philosopher and writer , born in Switzerland . From 1750 he came to fame with a series of works highly critical of the existing social order; his philosophy is underpinned by a belief in the fundamental goodness of human nature, encapsulated in the concept of the ‘noble savage’, and the warping effects of civilization. In his novel Émile ( 1762 ) Rousseau formulated new educational principles giving the child full scope for individual development in natural surroundings, shielded from the corrupting...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
489 words
Illustration(s):
1

...using obsolete language, and thus out of reach for young minds. In effect, Rousseau condemned children's literature that anticipates the child's own personal experiences, a viewpoint still defended today by those who believe that children's literature can constitute an individual initiation. Michel Manson Bloch, Jean . Rousseauism and Education in XVIIIth Century France . Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1995. Vargas, Yves . Introduction à l’Émile de Jean-Jacques Rousseau . Paris: Presses Universitaires de France,...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques   Reference library

The Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
150 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) French philosopher . Although author of the *anti-theatrical polemic known as the Lettre à M. d'Alembert , in the 1740s and 1750s Rousseau sought success as a playwright and composer. He began seven plays, one of which, Narcisse , failed at the *Comédie-Française . His ‘heroic *ballet ’ Les Muses galantes was *rehearsed by the Opéra, but withdrawn before performance. Only his *operetta Le Devin du village was successful when produced in 1753 . Rousseau considered himself a musician and supported himself as a...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
659 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ). Rousseau is best known for his contributions to political philosophy, with his Social Contract ( 1762 ) being generally regarded as his masterpiece. In that he argues for a version of sovereignty of the whole citizen body over itself, expressing its legislative intent through the general will, which is supposed to apply to all equally because it comes from all alike. The general will tends to promote liberty and equality , in Rousseau's view, and it both arises from and promotes a spirit of fraternity . Rousseau is...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,163 words

...of the Philosophers, 1999); also M. Cranston, Jean-Jacques: The Early Life and Work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712–1754 (1983); id. , The Noble Savage: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1754–1762 (1991); id. , The Solitary Self: Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Exile and Adversity (1997). A. Schinz , La Pensée de Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2 vols., Northampton, Mass., 1929). R. Derathé , Jean-Jacques Rousseau et la science politique de son temps (1950). S. Baud-Bovy and others, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Université Ouvrière et Faculté des Lettres de...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
269 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) Swiss -born social philosopher / botanist / protagonist of Romanticism . He described the délicieuse ivresse (delicious intoxication) experienced by abandoning oneself to the beauties of Nature, and that if only Man could find again a state of innocent, even primitive , virtue, greater happiness would result. In his celebrated novel, Julie, ou la Nouvelle Héloïse (1761), he described a garden in which ‘Julie’s’ former lover responded to the cool shades, calming effects of running water, many flowers, joyous birdsong,...

Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques

Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques (1712)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
99 words

..., JeanJacques ( b Geneva , 1712 ; d Ermenonville , 1778 ) Swiss philosopher , composer , and writer on music . While working as copyist, devised new system of music notation, which he published in Dissertation sur la musique moderne (Paris, 1743 ). Wrote opéra‐ballet, Les muses galantes ( 1747 ), and very successful pastoral opera Le Devin du village (Fontainebleau 1752 ). Took It. side in Querelle des Bouffons and attacked Fr. music in his Lettre sur la musique française ( 1753 ). Pubd Dictionnaire de Musique ( 1768 ). Left...

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712–78)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
153 words

..., Jean Jacques ( 1712–78 ) French philosopher of the Age of Reason, whose ideas about society helped to shape the political events that resulted in the French Revolution . Rousseau was born a Protestant in Geneva, Switzerland, and became a Roman Catholic in the 1730s, but later in his life he reconverted to Protestantism in order to regain his citizenship rights in Geneva. In 1740 , Rousseau moved to Paris and soon devoted himself to a career as a writer and composer. He contributed articles on music to the Encyclopédie of Diderot in the 1740s,...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
140 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ). Born in Geneva, his mother dying at his birth and his father deserting him when he was 10 years old, he was brought up by relations and had no formal education, except for reading Plutarch's Lives and Calvinist sermons. He had an extraordinarily ramshackle early life, taking up with an illiterate maidservant by whom he had five children—whom he committed to the foundling hospital even though he became famous for defending the natural goodness of man while blaming institutionalized life for the ills of the world. His ...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
164 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–78 ) A controversial social philosopher and educationalist of the French Enlightenment, whose writings centred around the development of social contract theory, a theory of human nature as essentially open but subsequently enchained, and a democratic theory of government. Rousseau’s status as an early social theorist depends upon the reader’s attitude to the many contradictions in his work. In different places he argued both that scientific inquiry should be shunned, since it corrupted public virtue, yet himself offered...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,748 words

...pick up threads of a long-standing debate, in which Rousseau took a strong and influential stand. See also Theater . Bibliography Works by Rousseau Rousseau, Jean-Jacques The First and Second Discourses Together with the Replies to Critics and Essay on the Origin of Languages . Translated by Victor Gourevitch . New York, 1986. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Politics and the Arts: Letter to M. d' Alembert on the Theatre . Translated by Allan Bloom . Reprint, Ithaca, N.Y., 1968. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Œuvres complètes . 5 vols. Edited by Bernard Gagnebin ...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
887 words

...and both withdraw from a society whose hypocrisies they criticize and end in a state of isolation ( Witemeyer , ‘George Eliot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’, 125–6). Eliot's comment in Impressions of Theophrastus Such that half our impressions of Rousseau's character in the Confessions come from what he unconsciously reveals ( TS 1), may also be pertinent to her use of a first-person narrator in Latimer. Another echo of Rousseau's experience on the lake occurs in Daniel Deronda in relation to a very different figure, Deronda himself, who first sees Mirah...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,468 words

..., Rousseau mixed high and low sentiments in his Confessions , challenging conventional notions of literature. Above all, it was Rousseau's search for truth in representing himself that drove him to new limits. He followed the writing of the Confessions with Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques , Dialogues . Not content with the portrait he had left of himself in the Confessions , and increasingly anxious about misrepresentations of his life, Rousseau here conducted a kind of self-trial in which a fictional “Rousseau” judges the life of the real Jean-Jacques. In...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,653 words

..., Jean-Jacques ( 1712–1778 ) Jean-Jacques Rousseau , a leading Enlightenment thinker, was perhaps most famous for his appeal to the “state of nature” as an ideal in whose light the general distortions of modern society could be measured and remedies proposed. Rousseau was a passionate critic of what he perceived to be the artifice, false consciousness, and inequality of modern society, and he advocated strongly the need to recover natural feeling, virtue, natural compassion, freedom, and equality. He placed such trust in “nature” because he trusted...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78)([Philos.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
175 words

..., Jean-Jacques [Philos.] ( 1712–78 ) A philosopher and writer . Born in Switzerland, he left home at the age of 15 to move to Italy and during his life he moved often, living in various parts of France, Italy, Switzerland, and, later, England. He developed the philosophy that ‘primitive’ man, the ‘noble savage’, was naturally innocent and that the effect of civilization was to corrupt people. His Du contrat social (The Social Contract, 1762 ) begins with the famous sentence ‘Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains’, and he coined the...

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