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Jarmo, Iraq

Subject: Archaeology

[Si] A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955, the site is important ...

Jarmo, Iraq

Jarmo, Iraq ([Si])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
146 words

..., Iraq [Si] A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955 , the site is important because of its early evidence for food production. Sixteen main levels were defined within the 7 m thick stratigraphy, the first eleven of which lacked pottery. The earliest levels date to the 7th millennium bc and reveal the presence of mud‐brick houses. Cereals at the site include wheat and barley, and there was equipment present for processing the grain. Field pea,...

Jarmo, Iraq

Jarmo, Iraq  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955, the site is important because of its early ...
Robert Braidwood

Robert Braidwood  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
(1907–2003) [Bi]American prehistorian specializing in the development of farming communities in the Near East. Initially, he studied architecture at the University of Michigan but switched to ...
Jarmo

Jarmo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,035 words

... (or Qal῾at Jarmo ), , prehistoric site located in northern Iraq (35°33′ N, 44°57′ E), approximately 11 km (7 mi.) east of the town of Chemchamal, at an altitude of 8,250 m. Jarmo occupies a hilltop above a wadi locally known as Cham-Gawra, one of several that drain the higher slopes of the ridges enclosing an intermontane plain in the Iraqi foothills of the Zagros Mountains. This plain is bounded by the Kani Domlan-Jabal Tasak and the Kani Shaitan Hasan-Sarirma Dagh ridges, and is 16 km (10 mi.) wide by 56 km (35 mi.) long (Braidwood and...

Braidwood, Robert

Braidwood, Robert (1907–2003)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
326 words

...picked up their investigations in the Near East, working first at Jarmo in northeast Iraq and later at Çayönü in southern Turkey. The theme of both investigations was tracking the development of early agricultural communities, and for this they assembled a multi‐disciplinary team of archaeologists and scientists, rigorously applying the principles of hypothesis testing. Braidwood was the author of numerous articles, books, and reports, most notably Prehistoric investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan (with B. Howe , 1960 , Chicago: University of Chicago...

Pigs

Pigs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
940 words

... S. s. attila —a habitant of Turkey, Iran, and Iraq—and S. s. libycus —common to the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt. The earliest evidence for domestic pig comes from Hallan Cemi in southeastern Turkey. Based on morphological changes and mortality patterns, domestication is dated by radiocarbon analysis to c. 8500 to 8000 bce . This preliminary new evidence supersedes the well-known morphological evidence for domestic pig (shortening of the skull and teeth) found at the Neolithic site of Jarmo in northern Iraq, dated to c. 6500 to 6000 bce . A few sites,...

Hajji Firuz

Hajji Firuz   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,282 words
Illustration(s):
1

...northern Mesopotamia. Bibliography Braidwood, Linda S. , Robert J. Braidwood , Bruce Howe , Charles A. Reed , and Patty Jo Watson . Prehistoric Archeology along the Zagros Flanks . Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 105. Chicago, 1983. Description of the work of the Iraq-Jarmo prehistoric project, which sought to document Robert Braidwood's model for the development of agriculture and social systems in the prehistoric Near East. Dyson, Robert H., Jr. “The Genesis of the Hasanlu Project.” Introduction to Hajji Firuz Tepe, Iran: The Neolithic...

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia   Reference library

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,035 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and early civilizations, a hypothesis that would be field tested by Robert Braidwood in his famous Iraq-Jarmo Prehistoric Project. Working with a multidisciplinary team including faunal specialist Charles Reed (and also Charlotte Otten and Frederik Barth), Braidwood initiated the Iraqi-Jarmo Prehistoric Project in 1947 . He collected floral and faunal remains from Paleolithic and Neolithic sites in the “natural habitat zone” in the piedmont regions of Iraq, where domestication was thought to have originated ( Braidwood & Howe, 1960 ). During this project...

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,809 words

...and the Pottery Neolithic. There is only Jarmo, with its aceramic layers beneath early pottery ones, that testifies to the latest part of that time-span. By that time, food production was already well advanced, and there is no doubt about an all-season occupation. In every respect, aceramic Jarmo is part of the greater Zagros horizon. [See Jarmo .] Pottery Neolithic (c. 7,000–6,000 bce ). The best representative for the Pottery Neolithic part of the greater Zagros development is also the site of Jarmo. As elsewhere, the introduction of pottery...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,795 words

...Erbaba in Anatolia and Jarmo in Iraq, among many others). At about the same time or a little earlier, a figurine found at the western Iranian site of Sarab indicates that woolly sheep were known. Hunting had not died out as an important subsistence pursuit-—though at sites where the important domesticates belonged to the same species as the wild animals hunting might also have been pursued—but there is presently no way to estimate its contribution accurately. However, at the site of Umm Dabaghiyeh, a sixth-millennium settlement in Iraq, onagers (a wild...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,975 words
Illustration(s):
2

...also, for profit or prestige. The traditions become more difficult to separate after that. The earliest proof of weaving in the Old World consists of a plain-weave fragment from Çayönü, Turkey, and cloth impressions on two clay balls from Jarmo in northeast Iraq, both dated about 7000 bce . [See Çayönü ; Jarmo .] One impression shows a balanced plain weave, the other a 2/2 basket weave (over 2, under 2, each way)—indicating that variety in techniques was already used by weavers. The variety, fineness, and evenness apparent in these impressions reveal...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,242 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and historical circumstances affects the weight of per capita labor burdens. Origins of Agriculture. Archaeological data relating to the origins of agriculture have mushroomed since Robert Braidwood's expedition to Jarmo in Iraq began a systematic gathering of botanical evidence for plant domestication (Braidwood, 1960 ). [See Jarmo .] The transition from the foraging cultures of the late Epipaleolithic ( c. 11,000–9000 bce ) to the farming cultures of the Neolithic ( c. 9000–5000 bce ) is documented by vegetal and animal remains recovered in...

Synoptic Outline of Contents

Synoptic Outline of Contents   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,780 words

...Assyrians Babylonians Chaldeans Kassites Sumerians Subregions and Sites Abu Salabikh Adab Akkade ῾Aqar Quf Aššur Babylon Baghdad Balawat Der, Tell ed- Diyala Eridu Eshnunna Eski Mosul Dam Salvage Project Euphrates Fara Girsu and Lagash Hamrin Dam Salvage Project Hassuna Isin Jarmo Jemdet Nasr Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta Khafajeh Khorsabad Kish Larsa Mashkan-shapir Nimrud Nineveh Nippur Nuzi 'Oueili, Tell el- Rimah, Tell er- Samarra Chalcolithic Period Islamic Period Seleucia on the Tigris Shanidar Cave Sippar Taya, Tell Tepe Gawra Tigris Ubaid Ur Uruk-Warka...

House

House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
14

...Neolithic sites of Jarmo and Maghzaliyeh, sees the development of increasingly complex, multiroomed rectangular architecture—perhaps designed to house extended families—that eventually developed into the tripartite Ubaid house. The second trend is less easy to follow. The circular houses of Qermez Dere and Nemrik can be associated with similar structures found much farther west, and the same may be argued for the later Halaf round houses as well. Certainly both the PPNA and Halaf manifestations suggest cultural continuity between northern Iraq and Syria in ways...

History of the Field

History of the Field   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
40,352 words

...the origins of agriculture. [See Agriculture .] Excavations at Jarmo, in northeastern Iraq, were especially successful in this regard. [See Jarmo .] At the same time, excavations by Ralph and Rose Solecki at Shanidar cave demonstrated the existence of Neanderthal communities in northern Mesopotamia. [See Shanidar Cave .] A new development in the late 1970s was the start of rescue archaeology in Iraq, stimulated by programs of dam building and irrigation undertaken by the Iraqi government. Multinational programs of survey, excavation, and research...

Geography and Chronology of the Transition to Agriculture

Geography and Chronology of the Transition to Agriculture   Reference library

Peter Bogucki

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
18,620 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as sheep and goats overlapped, the “hilly flanks” of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. Braidwood and his team excavated several sites in Iraqi Kurdistan, the most famous of which is Jarmo. He enlisted botanists to identify traces of cultivated plants and zoologists to determine the species represented by animal bones, as well as employing the newly developed technique of radiocarbon dating. Braidwood’s excavations at Jarmo between 1948 and 1955 revealed a settlement of mud-brick houses, bones of domestic animals like sheep and goats, and charred grain from...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of easy manufacture and use with the demands of load-bearing capacity and durability. During this period some settlements already covered a large expanse: Qal῾at Jarmo in the region of the Zagros Mountains was about 1 ha (approximately 2.5 acres), Tell Hassuna on the Upper Tigris River was 3 ha (about 7 acres), and Çatal Höyük in Anatolia was approximately 12 ha (30 acres). [See Jarmo ; Çatal Höyük .] In addition, as the examples of Tell es-Sawwan on the Middle Euphrates River and Tell es-Sultan (Jericho) in the Jordan Valley show, settlements were...

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant   Reference library

John M. Marston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
17,208 words
Illustration(s):
1

... The conditions of agricultural growth: The economics of agrarian change under population pressure . Chicago: Aldine. Boserup, E. (1981). Population and technological change: A study of long-term trends . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Braidwood, R. J. (1974). The Iraq Jarmo Project. In G. R. Willey (Ed.), Archaeological researches in retrospect (pp. 59–83). Cambridge: Winthrop. Butzer, K. W. (1982). Archaeology as human ecology: Methods and theory for a contextual approach . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Butzer, K. W. (2005)...

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia: c. 12,000 years ago - 2006  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Science Asia West Asia Iraq c. 8000 BCE 8000 BCE Sheep are the first farm animals of which evidence of domestication survives, from a settlement in northern Iraq Jarmo, Iraq The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Neolithic Science Asia West Asia Iraq 7000 BCE 7000 BCE Barley is cultivated in the Middle East Ali Kosh, Iran The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Neolithic Social and domestic Asia West Asia Iraq Society c. 4000 BCE 4000 BCE In Mesopotamia, and on the grass...

Iraq

Iraq: c. 12,000 years ago - 2006  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...evidence of the domestication of dogs Mesolithic The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Science Mesopotamia Asia West Asia c. 8000 BCE 8000 BCE Sheep are the first farm animals of which evidence of domestication survives, from a settlement in northern Iraq Jarmo, Iraq The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Neolithic Science Mesopotamia Asia West Asia 7000 BCE 7000 BCE Barley is cultivated in the Middle East Ali Kosh, Iran The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 Prehistory Neolithic Social and domestic...

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