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Japanism

Japanism (Nihonshugi) refers to ideas and movements that assert Japan's cultural or moral superiority. Its intellectual and social origins go back to attempts in the early to ...

Japan

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Japan officially adopted its flag in 1870, although Japanese emperors used this simple design for many centuries before. The flag shows a red sun on a white background. The Japanese name for the country is Nippon or Nihon, (‘Land of the Rising...

Japan

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Japan Physical map Political map Osaka Tokyo Central Tokyo Central Tokyo...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...and the independent tradition of cocktail bartending developed in Japan, with its high-quality tools, its emphasis on precision, and its elaborate treatment of ice, is widely influential abroad. Alt, Matt. “Good Libations: Examining the Evolution of Japan’s Rich Cocktail Culture.” Japan Times , March 24, 2018. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2018/03/24/food/good-libations-examining-evolution-japans-rich-cocktail-culture (accessed February 17, 2021). Bunting, Chris. Drinking Japan . Tokyo: Tuttle, 2011. Murray, Jim. Jim Murray’s Whisky Bible 2015...

Japan

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Japan ( Nihon / Nippon ) , ( Wa ) The formal name is Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku. Both forms of the Japanese name are correct and derive from the different pronunciation of a Sino-Japanese character. The names come from nichi ‘sun’ and hon ‘origin’. The English name comes from the Chinese pronunciation ‘Jipen’, transliterated as ribĕn from the Chinese characters rì (Japanese ni ) ‘sun’ and bĕn (Japanese pon or hon ) ‘origin’. This is taken to mean ‘Land of the Rising Sun’, a reference to the fact that Japan is east of China. It is generally...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,710 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Rivalry with Russia led to the Russo-Japanese War ( 1904-5 ) and decisive Japanese victory. Under the Treaty of Portsmouth, Japan gained the Liaodong peninsula, which Russia had leased from China, while Russia recognized the supremacy of Japan's interests in Korea. Thus Japan was established as a world power. In World War 1 Japan supported the Allies. After the war, in 1920 , Japan became a founding member of the League of Nations. During the 1920s, Japan built its economy, interrupted only by an earthquake ( 1923 ) that claimed 123,000 lives and...

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The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,584 words

... ‘a part-time job’, from German Arbeit work). For most Japanese, however, the term Japanese English is used, not to refer to the English spoken by Japanese, but as a translation of wasei eigo (‘Made-in-Japan English’), a term referring to local expressions drawn from English but used in uniquely Japanese ways, such as imējiappu (‘image up’) meaning ‘improving one’s image’. English in Japanese (1) Loans . English words are sometimes included in their original form within Japanese texts (for example, in advertisements and in some scientific...

Japan

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Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
843 words

... . References to Japan and the Japanese in African American newspapers in the 1890s reflect the views held in America generally: the differences, distinctiveness, and ostensible absurdity of the Japanese compared to residents of the West, mingled with appreciation for their martial accomplishments in the 1894–1895 Sino-Japanese War and trepidation that they would soon arrive in the United States as competitors in the labor market. At its most notable, the black press situated Japan's Meiji Restoration, and its successes in industrializing and producing...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
371 words

...ballet. Today Japanese ballet audiences are among the most enthusiastic in the world. Companies like the Royal Ballet and the Kirov are regular visitors, and Western stars like Sylvie Guillem and Evelyn Hart have been idolized there. In recent years Japanese-born dancers have found great success in the West. Tetsuya Kumakawa and Miyako Yoshida led a new generation of fine Japanese classical dancers trained and performing abroad, although Kumakawa returned home to popular acclaim when he founded his touring company K Ballet, based in Japan, in 1998 ....

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Bryan Harrell

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,242 words

...Tokyo visits. Although the popularity of Belgian beer in Japan has been small, the love of these beers by Japanese enthusiasts has been enduring, and interest has steadily grown over the past 20 years. There are now nearly 40 Belgian beer bars in Tokyo and perhaps about half as many spread throughout Japan’s other major cities. Craft beers from the United States have also been imported into Japan since the 1990s, alongside beers from Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. Another major shift in the Japanese beer scene occurred in 1994 with the relaxation of...

Japan

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Winifred Bird

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of total demand. Although a number of individual producers have developed unique varieties over the past few decades, Japan has yet to produce a distinct regional cheese along the lines of Spain’s Manchego or England’s Stilton. Some of the most exciting developments entail the blending of Japanese flavors with classic techniques of cheese production and cookery. The history of cheese in Japan is long but fragmented. Although ancient Japanese farmers used cows to till their fields, they did not consume their milk. In the sixth century, however, a visiting...

Japan

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Jim Bauman

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,073 words

...from China around ad 800 , only became a widespread beverage in the 15th century, partly through the Japanese court’s adoption of the Buddhist tea ceremony. This ceremony has now become formalized and stylized into a cornerstone of Japanese culinary culture ( see japanese tea ceremony ). By the middle of the 16th century, the Portuguese had already infiltrated a large part of Asia. They arrived in Japan and began trading. Although the Japanese despised them for their barbaric appearance—their beards, clothes, lack of bodily cleanliness—they nonetheless...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...time. The Sino-Japanese War finally broke out in 1937 , and, having already allied itself with Germany and Italy in the Anti-Comintern Pact , Japan finally entered World War II with a surprise attack on the US fleet at Pearl Harbor in December 1941 . Initially overrunning the colonial empires of south-east Asia at great speed, Japanese forces were eventually held and gradually driven back (the Pacific Campaigns). In September 1945 , after the dropping of two atomic bombs, Japan was forced to surrender and accept occupation. A new Japanese Constitution was...

Japan

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Japanese presence in Asia. World War II When Japan chose to attack the USA at Pearl Harbor in December 1941 it was already involved in the Sino-Japanese War . The decision to take on the colonial powers of Asia, was, therefore, a military gamble, the risks of which were well understood from the beginning. Initially, however, the gamble seemed to pay off, as the Japanese armed forces outmanoeuvred and outfought their opponents in campaigns which brought victories in Hong Kong , Singapore , Malaya , Burma , and the Philippines. But with Japanese...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

David L. Howell, Michael Auslin, and Carl Mosk

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,095 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in Japan ; Education, subentry Japan ; Emperors in East Asia ; Family and Kinship, subentry Japan ; Fascism and Protofascism, subentry Japan ; Film, subentry Japan ; Haiku ; Hiroshima and Nagasaki ; Industrialization, subentry Japan ; Japanese Language ; Japanese Literature ; Japanism ; Labor and the Labor Movement, subentry Labor Relations in Japan ; Meiji Restoration ; Military, subentry Military Organization in Japan ; Minorities, subentry Minority Populations in Japan ; Nanjing Massacre ; Nativism, subentry Japan ; ...

Japan

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Masaie Matsumura

The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
519 words

... . Lafcadio Hearn , who taught English Literature at Tokyo University ( 1896–1903 ), discouraged his students from reading Dickens. Dickens was so English in Hearn's view that Japanese students could hardly be expected to understand his novels until they had gone to England and experienced London life. But Shoyo Tsubouchi ( 1859–1935 ), a major figure in the modernization of Japanese literature, is remembered as the first Japanese Dickensian without experience of London life. His poor showing in an examination on Hamlet at Tokyo University stimulated...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,636 words

...and manner of Japan's postwar “return” to individual East Asian nations were dictated mainly by the history of Japan's colonial rule and wartime occupation and the imperatives of the Cold War. The intense anti-Japanese feeling among Korean leaders and people nurtured during the half-century of brutal Japanese rule prevented normalization of Japan's diplomatic relations with the Republic of Korea (South Korea) until 1965 . Relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) remain yet to be normalized. During the Korean War Japan signed a...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Roger Robinson

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,292 words

... Eric H. Thompson , 1979 ). The perfomance history of Shuriken in New Zealand and Japan is a study in cultural attitudes in its own right. The Japanese translation ( 1995 ) is by Ezawa Sokushin . There have been scattered attempts to write of Japanese culture or employ Japanese literary forms. They include Gary Langford's poetic sequence ‘The Samurai, 1387–1422’ in his Bushido: The Warrior in History ( 1987 ); C. K. Stead 's ‘Uta: 50 free translations from Japanese classical collection’ in Poems of a Decade ( 1983 ); and the New Zealand Poetry...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Ken Ohashi and Ryoko Fujimoto

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,537 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Zenbei Kawakami, often credited as the ‘father of Japanese wine’, established a vineyard in Niigata and began developing hybrid varieties suited to Japan’s climate. Of the 22 varieties he developed, muscat bailey a became one of the signature red wine grapes of Japan. Hybrids dominated the wine industry until the 1980s, when Japan’s first ‘wine boom’ saw per capita consumption double during the 1980s, and an increased exposure to imported wine spurred a movement towards vinifera varieties. Japanese wineries also focused on investment in modern...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Haruhiro Fukui

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,576 words

...half of Japanese lived on farms, and more than one-quarter of them were landless tenant farmers. Under these conditions, the prewar Japanese economy grew by about 3 percent per year on average, while the Japanese population more than doubled. The glaring imbalance between the growth rates of the economy and the population fed prewar Japan's quest for overseas colonies. The postwar democratization program redistributed the assets of the largest zaibatsu and landlords, laying the foundations of a more egalitarian, competitive, and productive nation. Japan's...

Japan

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Haruhiro Fukui

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,574 words

...of Japanese lived on farms, and more than one-quarter of them were landless tenant farmers. Under these conditions, the prewar Japanese economy grew by about 3 percent per year on average, while the Japanese population more than doubled. The glaring imbalance between the growth rates of the economy and the population fed prewar Japan's quest for overseas colonies. The postwar democratization program redistributed the assets of the largest zaibatsu and landlords, laying the foundations of a more egalitarian, competitive, and productive nation. Japan's...

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