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James II

King of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland, b. 14 Oct. 1633, 2nd s. of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; acc. 6 Feb. 1685; deemed to have abdic. 11 Dec. 1688; m. (1) Anne, da. of ...

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
122 words

... II ( 1633–1701 ) King of England ( 1685–88 ), second son of Charles I , brother of Charles II . Following the English Civil War , James fought for the French and Spanish, before returning as lord high admiral after the Restoration ( 1660 ). He converted to Roman Catholicism ( 1669 ) and was forced to resign all his offices. As king, James was confronted by Monmouth 's Rebellion ( 1685 ). His pro-Catholic policies inflamed popular opinion and the birth of a son, James Stuart , precipitated the Glorious Revolution . His daughter, Mary II , and her...

James II

James II   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
39 words

... II [Na] King of Scotland of the House of Stewart from 1437 . Born 1430 , son of James I . Married Mary , daughter of Arnold, duke of Guelders . He was killed accidentally in 1460 , aged 29, having reigned 23...

James II

James II (1430–60)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
58 words

... II ( 1430–60 ) King of Scotland ( 1437–60 ), son and successor of James I . His minority was dominated by aristocratic factions, particularly the Douglases. In 1452 , he killed the Earl of Douglas and seized control. During the Wars of the Roses , James supported the Lancastrians against the Yorkists, and was killed by an exploding cannon at...

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Literature
Length:
158 words

... II ( 1633–1701 ) , who succeeded his brother Charles II in February 1685 , was England's last Catholic monarch, having converted from the Church of England in 1672 . Although he was initially unwilling to alarm Protestant opinion unduly, James's Irish policy was increasingly influenced by Richard Talbot , Earl of Tyrconnell, who became Lord Deputy in 1686 and created the virtual Catholic monopoly of places in the judiciary, the army, and central and local government that is celebrated in the poetry of Dáibhí Ó Bruadair . On 5 November 1688 ...

James II

James II   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
443 words

... II ( 1430–60 ), king of Scots ( 1437–60 ). James II is the first Scottish king of whose appearance we can be fairly certain. He is portrayed as a confident young man, his hands on a dagger at his belt, with the whole of the left side of his face disfigured by a livid vermilion birthmark. In a short life—he died at 29—he followed the path taken by his father, broke the power of the greatest magnate house, the Black Douglases, secured a sizeable increase in royal power at home and a formidable reputation abroad. James was the younger of twin sons born to ...

James II

James II (1430–60)   Reference library

Norman Macdougall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
923 words

... II ( 1430–60 ), king of Scots ( 1437–60 ). James II is the first Scottish king of whose appearance we can be fairly certain. An Austrian visitor to the Scottish court in 1458 , Jörg von Ehingen , had a portrait made of the king, presumably for the edification of James’s sister Eleanor of Austria. King James is portrayed as a confident young man, his hands on a dagger at his belt, with the whole of the left side of his face from forehead to chin disfigured by a livid vermilion birthmark described by the French poet François Villon and the...

James II

James II   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
75 words

... II ( VII of Scotland ) [Na] King of the House of Stuart from 1685 . Born 1633 , second son of Charles I . Married (1) Lady Anne Hyde , daughter of Edward, earl of Clarendon ; (2) Mary , daughter of Alphonso, duke of Modena . His reign ended in flight from the kingdom in December 1688 . This was followed by an interregnum from December 1688 to February 1689 . James died in 1701 , aged 67, having reigned three...

James II

James II (1430–60)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
75 words

... II ( 1430–60 ) King of Scotland ( 1437–60 ), son and successor of James I . During his minority successive earls of Douglas vied for power, and when he began to reign in his own right the Douglases remained a threat to his authority. He improved the courts of justice and regulated the coinage. He was killed by an accidental cannon blast while leading a siege against Roxburgh Castle, held by the English....

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
324 words

... II ( 1633–1701 ), a convert to Catholicism since 1669 , succeeded his brother Charles II as king of England, Ireland, and Scotland in February 1685 . Contrary to later claims, he did not aspire to either absolutism or forcible religious change, believing that the use of his prerogative to suspend anti‐Catholic legislation would be enough to promote a Catholic revival in England. However, suspicion of his intentions led to his overthrow in the revolution of 1688 . In Ireland James, initially restrained by fear of alienating English and Irish Protestant...

James II

James II (b. 10 Oct. 1430)   Quick reference

The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
531 words
Illustration(s):
1

... II , b. 10 Oct. 1430 , s. of James I and Joan Beaufort ; acc. 21 Feb. 1437 ; m. Mary , da. of Arnold, duke of Gueldres , 3 July 1449 ; issue: s.(?), Mary , James , Alexander , David , John , Margaret ; illeg. issue: John; d. Roxburgh, 3 Aug. 1460 ; bur. Holyrood. The younger twin son of James I , and disfigured by a large birthmark (giving rise to the nickname ‘Fiery Face’), James was only six when his father was murdered in 1437 , and a long minority ensued. Sentence was passed against the claimant earl of Atholl and his...

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
149 words

... II ( 1633–1701 ), King of England and VII of Scotland, 1685–8 . The second son of Charles I , c. 1670 he became a RC. Subsequent attempts to exclude him from the succession were defeated. At the beginning of his reign he supported the C of E, but soon he claimed power to dispense from the Test Act and appointed RCs to high office, and in 1687 and 1688 he issued Declarations of Indulgence. The refusal of W. Sancroft and six other bishops to publish the second of these Declarations from the pulpit led to the Trial of the Seven Bishops. James...

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
161 words

... II ( 1633–1701 ) King of England and Scotland ( 1685–88 ), the second son of Charles I . As Duke of York he was Lord High Admiral in the second and third Anglo-Dutch Wars, during which the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was captured and renamed New York in his honour (1664). He became a Roman Catholic and married Mary of Modena, also a Roman Catholic, in 1673 , resigning as admiral in that year under the Test Act ; attempts were made to exclude him from the succession during the years 1679–81 , but on the death of Charles II he ascended the...

James II

James II (b. 14 Oct. 1633)   Quick reference

The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,018 words

... II , king of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland, b. 14 Oct. 1633 , 2nd s. of Charles I and Henrietta Maria ; acc. 6 Feb. 1685 ; deemed to have abdic. 11 Dec. 1688 ; m. (1) Anne , da. of Edward Hyde (later earl of Clarendon ), 3 Sept. 1660 ; issue: Mary , Anne ; (2) Mary , da. of Alfonso IV of Modena, 30 Sept. 1673 ; issue: James , Louisa ; d. 6 Sept. 1701 ; bur. St Edmund's, church of the English Benedictines, Paris. James's conduct during his short reign was so inept that premature senility has been suggested. He inherited...

James II

James II (1633–1701)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
657 words

...James II ( 1633–1701 ) , King of England and VII of Scotland, 1685–8 . The second son of Charles I , James fought in the Civil War as Duke of York, but after being captured escaped abroad, where he served with the French army. At the Restoration ( 1660 ), he was made Lord High Admiral and in 1662 issued ‘Instructions’ to the Navy which remained in force until the 19th cent. He married twice: first in 1660 Anne Hyde , who died a RC; by her he had two daughters, Mary and Anne ; and secondly in 1673 the RC Princess Mary Beatrice of Modena . About ...

James II

James II (16331701)   Reference library

Brewer's Famous Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
254 words

...James II 1633 1701 English King When King James II observed that the new St Paul's Cathedral was amusing, awful and artificial, he implied that Sir Christopher Wren's creation was ‘pleasing, awe-inspiring, and skilfully achieved’. Simeon Potter, Our Language (1976). Unverified remark employing three adjectives that were complimentary once but are for the most part pejorative now. In William Kent's An Encyclopedia of London (1937) it is Charles II who in 1675 is credited with approving a new design for St Paul's because it was ‘very artificial, proper...

Reilly, James, II

Reilly, James, II (1954– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Reilly, James, II ( 1954–  ) Former US astronaut . He flew with the Endeavour space shuttle mission in January 1998 that docked with the Russian space station Mir for the fifth and last exchange of an astronaut. In July 2001 he flew aboard Atlantis to install a new airlock module on the International Space Station ( ISS ). He later moved to the Astronaut Office to lead shuttle training, before he flew once again into space aboard space shuttle Atlantis to the ISS ; during the mission, Reilly accumulated 14 hours and 40 minutes of EVA in two...

Gallier, James (ii)

Gallier, James (ii) (25 Sept 1827)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
280 words

...James (ii) ( b Huntingdon, England , 25 Sept 1827 ; d New Orleans, LA , 18 May 1868 ), architect . He was the son of James Gallier . Gallier was educated at the University of North Carolina and, after his father retired, was in partnership first with John Turpin and later with Richard Esterbrook . His works include numerous residences and commercial buildings in New Orleans, mostly in the Italianate style, of which many survive. His own house ( 1857 ) on Royal Street was restored and opened in 1971 as a historic house museum. His most...

Bowdoin, James II

Bowdoin, James II (1726–90)   Reference library

Gordon E. Kershaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Gordon E. James Bowdoin II (Lanham, MD, 1991). Lowell, John . An Eulogy of the Honourable James Bowdoin, L.L.D, Late President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston, 1791). May, Henry F. The Enlightenment in America (New York, 1976). Stearns, Raymond P. “Colonial Fellows of the Royal Society of London, 1661-1783,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd Series, 2 (1946): 208–68. Stearns, Raymond P. Science in the British Colonies of America (Urbana, IL, 1970). Winthrop, Robert C. The Life and Services of James Bowdoin ...

James II , king of Scotland

James II , king of Scotland (1430–60)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
269 words

... II , king of Scotland ( 1430–60 ) The pivotal period of late medieval Scotland’s development, James II ’s reign began with a long minority. He was born in 1430 and succeeded on his father’s murder in 1437 . Power was exercised by a series of unstable councils until a grouping headed by the king’s custodians, the Livingstons and William , earl of *Douglas , established control. Following his marriage to Mary of *Guelders in 1449 , James entered his personal rule. The Livingstons were removed from office, and in 1450 the king harried ...

James, King, VII of Scotland and II of England

James, King, VII of Scotland and II of England (1633–1701)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., King, VII of Scotland and II of England ( 1633–1701 ). Second son of Charles I , James Duke of York was exiled after the British civil wars . He served in the French army under Turenne , who thought highly of him, changed sides when his brother concluded an alliance with Spain in 1656 , and commanded part of the Spanish army at the battle of the Dunes in 1658 . On Charles II's restoration in 1660 he became Lord High Admiral , and did much to improve the navy's efficiency. He was far less successful as a commander, failing to pursue the Dutch...

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