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The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by Paulina and her attendants, he accepts the truth of the oracle. He is already repenting when Paulina returns and tells him Hermione too has died: welcoming her bitter reproaches, he promises to mourn his dead wife and son perpetually. 3.3 Antigonus has dreamed of Hermione’s ghost, who told him to call the baby Perdita and leave it in Bohemia, prophesying that Antigonus would never see Paulina again. Believing the child must really be Polixenes’, he has been brought to the Bohemian coast by ship, and as the weather worsens he leaves Perdita there, with a...

Paul and Thecla, Acts of Sts

Paul and Thecla, Acts of Sts   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
390 words

...Paul was charged before the civil authorities and beaten, while Thecla was condemned to death by burning, but miraculously saved. Other incidents in various parts of Asia Minor are described in the lives of both Paul and Thecla, and theActs’ conclude with the record of Thecla's death at Seleucia. It is not impossible that theActscontain some elements of historical truth. Gk. text pr. in R. A. Lipsius and M. Bonnet (eds.), Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha , 1 (Leipzig, 1891), 235–72, Eng. tr. in J. K. Elliott , The Apocryphal New Testament ...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Peter Lamarque and Stein Haugom Olsen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,226 words

...( 1972 , 1460a). These remarks illustrate not only that the question of the verisimilitude of a work of art is different from that of its (literal) truth, but also that it was commonly accepted through the classical period that historical truth and accuracy had lower priority than verisimilitude. The function of poetry, the art in which the question of truth has always arisen in its most acute form, was, in Horace’s words (65–8 bce ), held to be “to do good or to give pleasure—or, thirdly, to say things which are both pleasing and serviceable for life”...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,019 words

...Plutarch, the Greeks also held that “poetry owed its charm and honour to its power to express things in a lifelike way: as Homer says [ Odyssey , 19.203], ‘she spoke many lies, resembling truth’ ” ( Moralia , 1972 , 346 f ff.). The concern for verisimilitude also emerges in Aristotle's much-quoted dictum that “one ought to prefer likely impossibilities to unconvincing possibilities” ( 1972 , 1460a ). These remarks illustrate not only that the question of the verisimilitude of a work of art is different from that of its (literal) truth, but that it was...

Fiction

Fiction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,060 words

...focus on sentences that include fictions as nouns with a view toward more precisely establishing two things, the referent of such expressions and the truth or falsity of assertions that incorporate such expressions. In the first case, the problem has been to distinguish between two kinds of objects. On the one hand, the referent of a fictional expression might be taken as a nonactual object of some sort that subsists that might exist (i.e., that is not impossible), but will never exist in the sense of being a spatiotemporal segment of the one actual world....

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics

Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14,188 words

...Speech acts are, of course, also of concern to semantics. A few words, like hello , have meanings that may be given by a specification of the speech acts they are used to perform. Other words, like promise , refer to acts the performance of which can be accomplished by sincere utterances of sentences containing them. In some cases, the boundary between pragmatics and contextual semantics is not entirely clear, and certain linguistic phenomena may be the proper concern of both. This is true of some indexicals. Squarely within the domain of contextual...

Fiction

Fiction   Reference library

Peter McCormick and Wolfgang Iser

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,354 words

...to focus on sentences that include fictions as nouns with a view toward more precisely establishing two things, the referent of such expressions and the truth or falsity of assertions that incorporate such expressions. In the first case, the problem has been to distinguish between two kinds of objects. On the one hand, the referent of a fictional expression might be taken as a nonactual object of some sort that subsists that might exist (i.e., that is not impossible) but will never exist in the sense of being a spatiotemporal segment of the one actual world....

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,226 words

...The second is that it is impossible to foresee all the consequences of implementing human rights, and it seems therefore dogmatic to insist that human rights should be implemented in all circumstances. It is noteworthy that Article 29 of the Universal Declaration states that human rights may be limited to protect human rights and to meet the “just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.” To some, this suggests that torture might be allowed to protect a democratic society from immense danger. Natural and...

Postmodern and Poststructural International Political Economy

Postmodern and Poststructural International Political Economy   Reference library

Joscha Wullweber and Christoph Scherrer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,663 words

...there is no meaningful “reality” outside the field of discursivity. But the “discursive character of an object does not, by any means, imply putting its existence into question” ( Laclau and Mouffe 1990 :100, italics original). Accordingly, meaning is not simple existent, nor is it determined or entangled with the existence of the object. However, that does not mean that there is no truth. Instead, truth and relations of meaning are constantly constructed, negotiated, and historically changing. Every discourse is the contingent product of hegemonic...

Derrida, Jacques

Derrida, Jacques   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,511 words

...in a direct line to law; that line is a nonpassage, an aporia. Yet justice is disclosed in law, even as its own effacement. This is the peculiar nature of the deconstructive embrace. Ethics as “the experience of the impossible” and politics as the calculus of action are also in a deconstructive embrace. The space of being is the gift of time (so to speak): We fall into time, we begin to “be,” unanticipatably. To call it a gift is to solve that aporia by thinking of some other (one) that “gives” time. Thus life is lived as the call of the wholly other, which must...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

.... It is impossible to discuss history without first establishing some terms of reference, since the word is at least as slippery as rhetoric itself. In one of its senses, history means “events that have happened in the past”; in another of its senses, it is equivalent to “historical writing” (for which historiography is often a synonym). This overlap of meaning constitutes a helpful reminder that very often we know of events only because they have been written down. However real an event was at the time when it occurred, the past is an abstraction:...

Salvation History

Salvation History   Reference library

Günter Wasserberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,671 words

...the life of a real historical person. Any faith in Christ is an interpretation of the life of Jesus of Nazareth in history. Bultmann’s critical view of history led him—and those who came out of the Bultmann school (Ernst Käsemann, Hans Conzelmann, Ernst Haenchen)—to be critical of any NT writing that could be seen as advocating salvation history as, for example, Luke–Acts. Thus, Luke–Acts was marked with the epithet “Early Catholicism.” Moreover, they also seized upon a negative view of the OT, in particular, and of Judaism in general. The Judaism of the...

Gospels

Gospels   Reference library

John S. Kloppenborg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,442 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the life of Jesus that include the passion and resurrection accounts. It must be pointed out, however, that the copyists of the Coptic Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Philip and Gospel of Mary seemed not to have any difficulty in designating texts which lacked passion and resurrection accounts as “gospels.” Dialogue/Discourse Gospels. The Gospel of the Savior (Papyrus Berolinensis 22220), preserved in Coptic, contains discourses, dialogical elements and possibly narrative elements. Although euaggelion does not appear in the extant fragments, the...

Origin of Life

Origin of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...as the two halves of a double-origin theory.” In essence, Oparin/Haldane described the first origin-of-life event and Eigen the second. Dyson sums up this idea with his usual clarity: “Roughly speaking, Cairns-Smith equals Oparin plus Eigen plus a little bit of clay.” All three theories may turn out to contain essential elements of the truth. The Solar System as an Origin-of-Life Laboratory One of the main problems with investigating the origin of life on earth is the continuous reworking of the earth's surface, which has destroyed any geological traces of an...

Poe, Edgar Allan

Poe, Edgar Allan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8,009 words

... The Scythe of Time (earlier called A Predicament ), which are satires of the contemporary literary scene. Another characteristic of Poe's grotesque stories is the introduction of elements of the ludicrous and the absurd. In the tale Loss of Breath , the protagonist literally loses his breath and goes out in search of it. It is a shame that Poe's early grotesques are generally neglected, because not only do they testify to his range and resourcefulness as a writer, but some of them are compelling and funny. The neglect results partly from the fact that, in...

Interpretation, History of

Interpretation, History of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,530 words

...it is linked with the discipline of biblical theology , which is the synthetic side of the same movement. Biblical theology seeks to see the common elements that run through the texts, whether through a historical or developmental scheme or through the perception of an inner structure. No serious biblical theology has arisen except in conjunction with the critical approach. Biblical theology, like criticism, is an exploratory approach; the true inner theology of the Bible is not already known, but must be discovered. For opponents of critical study, the...

Political Thought

Political Thought   Reference library

Arjo Vanderjagt

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,869 words

... the self-love of its denizens, the other by its citizens’ love for God and thus for each other. Still, the key idea for Aug. is thatit (= the City of God) produces citizens here below’ in the earthly city. Aug. here reaches back to the very beginning of civ . (1.35): ‘In truth, these two cities are interwoven and intermixed in this era ( saeculum ), and await separation at the last judgement’. He stresses that in this mixed city it is not clear who belongs or does not belong to that ...

science and philosophy

science and philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,979 words

...we possess concerns the contents of our own ideas rather than matters of fact about the world. But what is the Humean empiricist to say about the apparently a priori elements in physical science? Physicists simply assumed that space was Euclidean, that motion was continuous, that matter was conserved and that the universe was deterministic. But none of these assumptions is analytic, merely a matter of clarifying the meaning of some key concept. On the face of it, these are significant claims about the nature of our world, claims that physicists seemed to...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,954 words

...pursuit of the desire for the truth that they called philosophy. Socrates moves us toward a later sense of genius, in part by exemplifying the workings of a daimon , apart from any existing theology ( Apology 26c–e). This moment marks one beginning of the somewhat paradoxical secularization of the divine, without which the idea of genius is impossible. Seeing these separate elements laid out in this way should help to clarify the later history of the concept of genius. Each of the concepts above continues to circulate in the realms of Western thought and...

circus, modern

circus, modern   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,455 words

...all the rings, so there developed a hierarchy among the acts, with the most highly touted taking place in the centre ring. This, of course, made it impossible for a spectator to focus on everything at once, though the overall sensation might be one of unfathomable excitement. The American drive, led by Barnum, for ‘more’, ‘bigger’, and ‘better’ spilled out of the Big Top to greet customers at the very entrance of the circus grounds. The larger American circuses had already begun to offer auxiliary, carnival attractions in sideshow tents. Adjacent to the main...

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