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invention

Subject: Music

Name given by J. S. Bach to 15 of his shorter kbd. comps. in 2 parts or ‘voices’, incl. in his Klavierbüchlein, 1720. They are highly contrapuntal, being largely in the nature of ...

invention

invention   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
39 words

...invention The idea of a new product, or a new method of producing an existing product. This is distinguished from an innovation , which is the development of an invention to the stage where its use becomes economically...

invention

invention   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
147 words

... . Inventions may be old ideas or techniques applied in new ways: they are very often combinations of old, and even highly familiar, ideas. To some degree almost all human behaviour is inventive, for it is seldom strictly repetitive and is aimed at contingencies which, though small and trivial, nevertheless require invention even if of a humble kind. The outstanding inventions, such as the phonograph of Thomas Alva Edison , represent the extension of abilities to some degree possessed by us all. Edison had remarkable perseverance towards imaginative...

Invention

Invention   Reference library

R. Kalas

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,601 words

...the Ren., the rhetorical understanding of invention is coupled with, and to some extent supplanted by, the mod. notion of invention as innovation. In The Advancement of Learning ( 1605 ), Francis Bacon argues that “the invention of speech or argument is not properly an invention, for to invent is to discover that which we know not, and not to recover or resummon that which we already know” (2.13.6). Invention continues thereafter to be used to describe poetic composition. But whereas poetic invention had once indicated the process of allowing a...

Invention

Invention   Reference library

Herbert Heyde

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
425 words

...feature. Invention trumpets and invention horns, conventionally so called, are compactly coiled to bring the bell within easy reach for stopping, and intended for playing in numerous keys, as required in later 18th-century orchestral music. In 1753 the Dresden horn maker Johann Werner delivered Inventions-Waldhörner of unknown form to the Königliche Sächische Kapelle; they were first used for Hasse’s ‘Artemisia’ (1754), which called for horns in G, F, E♭, D, and C. About the same time Philipp Schöller in Munich also produced invention horns. Cor solo...

Invention

Invention   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
97 words

... Name given by J. S. Bach to 15 of his shorter keyboard comps. in 2 parts or ‘voices’, incl. in his Klavierbüchlein , 1720 . They are highly contrapuntal, being largely imitative in form. Each works out some short melodic motif. Bach also left another 15 comps. in the same style, now known as his ‘3‐part Inventions’, to which he gave the title ‘Symphonies’. The term was used before Bach's day for short vocal or instrumental pieces by Dowland , Janequin , and Negri , among others. It has occasionally been revived in the 20th cent., e.g. by ...

invention

invention   Reference library

Jane Bellingham

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
209 words

...the same book are now known as ‘three-part inventions’, though Bach himself called them either ‘sinfonias’ or ‘fantasias’. In a preface added later ( 1723 ) Bach states that the inventions provide instruction in ‘learning to play distinctly in two parts … and in addition, not only of arriving at good original ideas [ inventiones ], but also of developing them satisfactorily; and most of all of acquiring a cantabile style of playing and at the same time of receiving a strong foretaste of composition’. Each invention is highly contrapuntal and most are imitative...

invention

invention   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
181 words

...the stimulus to fine invention. Artists began to claim the right to suggest their own subject matter, unshackled by scholars or patrons. When Isabella d'Este ( 1474–1539 ) attempted to prescribe a subject for Giovanni Bellini , Pietro Bembo ( 1470–1547 ) reminded her that great artists prefer to work to their own invention. Invention did not necessarily imply novel subjects, but rather, as Poussin commented, singular and new treatments of traditional themes. In the 18th century it began to suggest the artist's power to arouse wonder by subjects of...

Invention

Invention   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,403 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of invention, and it was the first of a long series of laws investing intellectual property rights in inventions. Inventor-revolutionaries like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson helped lay the foundation for a national mythology of heroic invention. Quickly figures like Eli Whitney (famous for his cotton gin and firearms manufacture) and Robert Fulton (who pioneered steamboats and a variety of naval ventures) emerged as distinctive American identities. Combining Empirical and Theoretical Approaches. The early industrial image of invention in...

Invention

Invention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
11,654 words

...not. We have then invention in the sense of the process by which the speech is invented and also in the sense of the process of invention within the speech. Invention in the second sense, so far as it is successful, must conform to the ways in which the mind works in invention. Consider, for example, the invention of enthymemes. [ See Enthymeme .] Invention in the first sense would involve selecting a topic of enthymeme and filling it with definite content. One could thus invent many different kinds of enthymemes, but the process of invention would be similar...

invention

invention   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
78 words

...invention In patent law, a specification for a product or a method which produces functionality in industry and some physical effect. To be a patentable invention the stipulation must (among other criteria) be new in the sense of not being essentially the same as a prior product or a prior method (novelty) and must not have been obvious to those in the field (an inventive step for a standard patent or an innovative step for an innovation...

backward invention

backward invention   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
21 words

...invention The process of redesigning and producing a product for foreign markets after it has become obsolete in advanced...

cognitive invention

cognitive invention n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...invention n. A term introduced by the US psychologist Irvin Rock ( 1922–95 ) to denote the process by which illusory contours ...

autonomous invention

autonomous invention   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
54 words

...invention [Th] The development of a new technology, artefact, or style which is similar to one that already exists in another time or place but which has come about completely independently. Many important discoveries and inventions have been made several times over, for example: the domestication of plants and animals; metalworking; and...

Invention and improvisation

Invention and improvisation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,469 words

...a dogma that this innovative spirit was creditworthy on nearly every front, and a cause for national pride, but now the opinion is far from unanimous, for technology is less in favour and its side effects are observed with concern. Inventions and the invention record are discussed in Robert Ingpen , Australian Inventions and Innovations (1982) , and J. P. Wild (ed.), From Stump-Jump Plough to Interscan (1977) . On particular industries see Geoffrey Blainey , The Rush That Never Ended: A History of Australian Mining (1963) , and Gerald Walsh , ...

invention of photography

invention of photography   Reference library

Kelley E. Wilder

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,965 words

... (1956). Buckland, G. , Fox Talbot and the Invention of Photography (1980). Gautrand, J. -C. , Hippolyte Bayard: naissance de l'image photographique (1986). Busch, B. , Belichtete Welt: Eine Wahrnehmungsgeschichte der Photographie (1989). Schaaf, L. J. , Out of the Shadows: Herschel, Talbot and the Invention of Photography (1992). Batchen, G. , Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography (1997). Marignier, J. -L. , Niépce: l'invention de la photographie (1999). Bajac, Q. , The Invention of Photography: The First Fifty Years , trans. R....

Mothers of Invention, the

Mothers of Invention, the   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Invention, the . Rock group led by frank Zappa...

Invention of the Cross

Invention of the Cross   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
46 words

... of the Cross . The legendary discovery (Lat., inventio ) of the cross of Jesus at Calvary by St Helena , the mother of Constantine . The legend developed from the 5th cent. on. The feast is now called the Exaltation of the Cross in both E. and...

invention, inventors, and design

invention, inventors, and design   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...“microwave” was created. By 1975 more microwave ovens were being sold than gas ovens. In short, the inventor often delivers the invention to a commercial firm and not directly to society. The commercial firm then revises the invention and markets the product to society. Only when the inventor owns the firm making the invention does the inventor directly control the form and features of his invention. Sometimes, too, an invention will not “get through” the commercial system because producing it will not yield a big enough profit. Introducing a new...

Invention of the Cross

Invention of the Cross   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
136 words

... of the Cross . According to legend the crosses of Christ and the two robbers were found (Lat. inventae ) by St Helena , that of Christ being identified by a miracle. The relic was preserved in the church of the Holy Sepulchre , after parts of the wood had been sent to churches throughout the world; its veneration is described by Egeria . When the commemoration on 14 Sept. of the Finding of the Cross spread from the E. to the W. in the 7th–8th cents., it evolved into the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (q.v.). An earlier W. commemoration on 3...

Invention of the Cross

Invention of the Cross   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
515 words

...Invention of the Cross . Acc. to legend the three crosses on Calvary (of Christ and the two robbers) were found (Lat. inventae ) by St Helena , the mother of Constantine , that of Christ being identified by a miracle. St Ambrose , whose ‘Oratio de Obitu Theodosii’ ( 395 ) is the first work to connect the event with St Helena , is followed by many other Fathers such as St John Chrysostom and Paulinus of Nola. St Jerome , however, who lived quite near the place, is silent on the matter. St Cyril of Jerusalem , without mentioning St Helena, states...

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