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International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

(Iiasa) A non‐governmental research organization located near Vienna in Austria, that conducts interdisciplinary scientific studies on environmental, economic, technological, and ...

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... Institute For Applied Systems Analysis The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) was founded in 1972 by nongovernmental national member organizations (NMOs) from twelve countries: the United States, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Although formally nongovernmental, all NMOs had the clear support and financing of their governments. The idea had first been proposed by U.S....

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Institute for Applied Systems Analysis ( IIASA ) A non‐governmental research organization located near Vienna in Austria, that conducts interdisciplinary scientific studies on environmental, economic, technological, and social issues in the context of the human dimensions of global...

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis  

(Iiasa)A non‐governmental research organization located near Vienna in Austria, that conducts interdisciplinary scientific studies on environmental, economic, technological, and social issues in the ...
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution  

An international agreement, formalized in 1979, setting out a framework for the development of programmes for reducing the sources of long-range air pollution. See also Gothenburg Protocol.
nongovernmental Organization

nongovernmental Organization  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(NGO)A private international organization that acts as a mechanism for cooperation among private national groups in both municipal and international affairs, particularly in economic, social, ...
Decarbonization

Decarbonization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Laxenburg, Austria, 1982. Nakićenović, N. Technological Change and Learning. In Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics and Policy , edited by N. Nakicénović et al. CP-96–1, International Institute for Applied Systems Analyis. Laxenburg, Austria, 1996a. ——. Decarbonization: Doing More with Less . Technological Forecasting and Social Change 51.1 (1996b), 1–17. ——. Freeing Energy from Carbon . Daedalus 125.3 (1996c), 95–112. Reprinted as RR-97–4, International Institute for Applied Systems...

Fox, Karl August

Fox, Karl August (1917)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
738 words

...vol. 15, pp. 57–85. Social Indicators and Social Theory: Elements of an Operational System (1974). ‘ The Eco-Behavioral View of Human Societies and Its Implications for Systems Science, ’ International Journal of Systems Science (1983), vol. 14, pp. 895–914. (with Don G. Miles ) Systems Economics: Concepts, Models, and Multi-disciplinary Perspectives (1987). Paul...

Seers, Dudley

Seers, Dudley (1920–83)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,977 words

...within the international economy which made a tripartite division in the world – West, East and South – increasingly misleading. In the Political Economy of Nationalism ( 1983 ), Seers argued the case for a more Euro-centred strategy in a world divided into a number of regional economic blocs. Seers also argued that to analyse regimes in terms of their orientation along some ‘old left-right axis…is not much use.’ Rather he put the case for a two-axis analysis: nationalist: anti-nationalist and egalitarian: anti-egalitarian. This produced a four-fold...

Johnston, Bruce Foster

Johnston, Bruce Foster (1919)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
665 words

... 1970 . From 1974–5 he was visiting professor of development studies at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. In 1976 he worked with the Asian Development Bank. In 1977 he was on an I.L.O. Mission in Tanzania. From 1977–8 he was a research fellow at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenberg, Austria. Throughout this time he published extensively, writing over one dozen books and many more articles. In short, Johnston was one of the most sought-after and important agricultural economics specialists in the world. While most of...

Negotiation

Negotiation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,468 words

...Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991. Bunn, George . Arms Control by Committee . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1992. Casti, J . On System Complexity. Working Paper 85–22. Luxenburg, Austria: International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, 1985. Chasek, Pamela . From Stockholm to Rio: An Analysis of 20 Years of Multilateral Environmental Negotiation in the United Nations System. Tokyo, Japan: UN University Press, 2001. Chasek, Pamela , Lynn Wagner , and I. William Zartman . The Internationalization of North African Environmental...

Teaching International Relations Theory

Teaching International Relations Theory   Reference library

Craig Douglas Albert

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,577 words

...I. (1994) World-Systems Analysis . Durham: Duke University Press. Walt, S. (1998) One World, Many Theories. Foreign Policy 110, 29–46. Waltz, K. (1979) Theory of International Politics . New York: McGraw-Hill. Webber, J. (2005) Independence Day as a Cosmopolitan Moment: Teaching International Relations. International Studies Perspectives 6, 374–92. Weber, C. (2001) The Highs and Lows of Teaching IR Theory: Using Popular Films for Theoretical Critique. International Studies Perspectives 2, 281–7. Zimmern, Sir A. (ed.) (1939) University...

Interdependence in International Organization and Global Governance

Interdependence in International Organization and Global Governance   Reference library

Roger A. Coate, Jeffrey A. Griffin, and Steven Elliott-Gower

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,444 words

...on the notion of system equilibrium and argued that four prerequisites are necessary for social system maintenance: pattern maintenance, adaptation, goal attainment, and integration. When applied to the field of international politics, he postulated that on an international level common values and procedural consensus would be integral to having equilibrium and international stability. In his System and Process in International Politics , Kaplan ( 1957 ) conceptualized the international system as being composed at any one time of a system of action in...

Teaching International Law

Teaching International Law   Reference library

Robert J. Beck and Henry F. Carey

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,681 words

...Society of International Law (2004) Workshop on the Teaching of International Law, Saturday, April 3, Washington, DC. Sponsored by American Society of International Law – Teaching Initiative; International Law Association, Committee on the Teaching of International Law; Institute for International Law and Politics – Georgetown University. At www.ila-hq.org/download.cfm/docid/AB164062–5D62–46EF–97D597D647592AD4 , accessed July 27, 2009. Armstrong, D. , Farrell, T. , and Lambert, H. (2007) International Law and International Relations . Cambridge:...

The Science of Agroecology

The Science of Agroecology   Reference library

Juha Helenius, Alexander Wezel, and Charles A. Francis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
7,474 words
Illustration(s):
3

...scientific debate on pros and cons. For example, environmental impacts of conventional versus organic farming have received much attention, allowing for meta-analysis. Not surprisingly, these converge in finding need for improvement in both ( Tuomisto et al., 2012 ). There are handbook-type recommendations available for agroecological practices for farming systems in many agroecological zones and regions worldwide. Guidebooks for agroecological farming have been compiled, for example, for Europe ( Wezel et al., 2014c ), for the United States (e.g., SARE[...

Curry, Haskell Brooks

Curry, Haskell Brooks (1900–82)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,119 words

...He also held visiting fellowships and appointments. In 1931–2 he was at the University of Chicago as a National Research Council Fellow; in 1938–9 he was in residence at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton; during 1942–6 he worked for the United States government doing applied mathematics for the war effort at the Frankford Arsenal ( 1942–4 ) and the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University ( 1944–5 ); in 1945–6 he did research at the Ballistic Research Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, where he worked on the...

Nordic Peace Research

Nordic Peace Research   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
4,251 words

...political science, international relations, strategic studies, and peace research. Political science is the oldest one; the others were created either by developing out of political science or by being instituted as an entirely new branch. The first chair in international relations, for instance, was created in Aberystwyth, United Kingdom, after World War I, by a donation from a Quaker who believed that a better understanding of the international system would make it more peaceful. In some countries there are separate chairs in international relations, whereas...

Complexity Theory and Conflict Transformation

Complexity Theory and Conflict Transformation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,435 words

...frame, realist frame). They accord dynamical complex systems the status of overarching or superordinate frame. Applying multiple frames of analysis or lenses for viewing the world can bring greater insight but also makes visible, and challenges, our assumptions. Further, the ability to discern patterns within processes and make connections between insights gleaned from differing frames should give a richer analytical understanding of complex conflict systems. The Berghof Institute also adopts a dynamic-systems approach and advises alternating perspectives...

de George, Richard Thomas

de George, Richard Thomas (1933–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,437 words

...had the foresight to incorporate political and economic theory into ethical inquiry by employing ethical criteria as a foundation for the validity, and viability, of social and political systems. Rather than analyzing history on the basis of economic and political considerations alone, De George subjected historical and social analysis to ethical criticism. With an underlying pragmatic emphasis, De George’s turn toward applied ethics revealed that often political and theoretical constructs have an ethical underpinning in the form of foundational values which...

Haberler, Gottfried

Haberler, Gottfried (1900–95)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,404 words

...Haberler was the first who systematically applied it for a generalization of the theory of comparative costs as an instrument for the analysis of production-technological connections in cases with several factors of production Haberler's modern reformulation of the classical argument that free trade and a growing international division of labor are beneficial to the participating nations revolutionized the theory of international trade and paved the way for the subsequent work of Ohlin, Samuelson and others as, for example, the classical...

Hintikka, Kaarlo Jaakko Juhani

Hintikka, Kaarlo Jaakko Juhani (1929–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,365 words

...the cross-identification of individuals in different possible worlds. These topics, which led him into debates with W. V. Quine , Föllesdal, and David Lewis , are discussed in Models for Modalities ( 1969 ) and The Intentions of Intentionality (1975). Starting with The Semantics of Questions and the Questions of Semantics (1976), Hintikka has also applied his system of epistemic logic to give an account of the logic of questions and dialogues. On philosophy of logic and mathematics, Hintikka realized that his distributive normal forms, due to the...

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