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International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament

The struggle against nuclear weapons began even before they existed. 1945–1954 During World War II, many scientists working on the Manhattan Project (the U.S. effort to ...

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,338 words

...the nuclear arms race and to prevent the waging of nuclear war. [ See also Antinuclear Power Protests in the United States ; Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ; Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament ; Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ; Cousins, Norman ; Einstein, Albert ; European Nuclear Disarmament ; Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp ; Greenpeace ; International Fellowship of Reconciliation ; International Peace Bureau ; Japan, Peace Movements in ; Nuclear-free and Independent Pacific Movement ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Test Ban ; Nuclear...

International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament

International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament  

The struggle against nuclear weapons began even before they existed.1945–1954During World War II, many scientists working on the Manhattan Project (the U.S. effort to produce an atomic bomb) ...
Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000

Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000  

Any overview of various plans, proposals, and negotiations for the reduction, control, and removal of nuclear weapons from Europe during this period has to take account of the essence of ...
European Nuclear Disarmament

European Nuclear Disarmament  

[This entry contains two subentries: 1975–1985 and 1980–1992.]From the late 1950s to the early 1960s, some pacifists, parts of the labor movement, and independents on the socialist left began ...
unilateralism

unilateralism  

Literally ‘one‐sidedness’, although unilateralists protested vigorously in the 1980s when opponents so translated it. A British movement against domestic involvement with nuclear weapons. All ...
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(CND)A British pressure group pledged to nuclear disarmament and to the abandonment of British nuclear weapons. CND was created in 1958 with the philosopher Bertrand Russell as President. Frustration ...
Nuclear Weapon-free Zones

Nuclear Weapon-free Zones  

[This entry contains two subentries: An Overview and European Activity.]A nuclear weapon-free zone (NWFZ) is a populated region whose member states have formally agreed by a multilateral treaty to ...
Films for Peace

Films for Peace  

Film is a powerful medium that can change, and indeed may have changed, the way humans conceive of the world and the events that take place in it. Filmmakers, consciously ...
Paul Smoker

Paul Smoker  

Paul Smoker (1938–1998) was a visionary teacher and activist who became a key founder of British and American peace studies. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of London ...
Nuclear Controversies in the United States

Nuclear Controversies in the United States  

“Dear Mr. President: Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of ...
Commonweal Collection

Commonweal Collection  

The Commonweal Collection is a unique peace resource based in Britain: a library of more than eleven thousand books, pamphlets, and videos and 150 periodicals and journals. These resources and ...
Antinuclear Power Protests in the United States

Antinuclear Power Protests in the United States  

The history of nuclear power in the United States began with the top-secret Manhattan Project (1942–1946), in which the first atomic bomb was produced and used in 1945 against Japan ...
disarmament

disarmament  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process or policy of reducing levels of armaments, especially in the nuclear age, with the implication that possession of arms itself stimulates conflict. It is distinct from arms control—the ...
Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rotblat  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Sir Joseph (Józef) Rotblat (1908–2005) was born in Warsaw to a well-to-do Jewish family. His father’s business, however, was destroyed during World War I. As a child Rotblat experienced hunger ...
Peace Symbol

Peace Symbol  

A central dimension of any peacebuilding process revolves around the question of how to deal with the past: How should it be represented and remembered? How will the past be ...
Traditions of Peace

Traditions of Peace  

Several attempts have been made to develop typologies or classifications of peace traditions, including several by the author of this entry. While this may limit the exercise, the traditions dealt ...
Gandhian Influence on Peace Movement

Gandhian Influence on Peace Movement  

Mohandas K. Gandhi is probably the best-known peace activist of recent times. His life example, writings, and particularly his nonviolent campaigns to free his native India from British colonialism ...
Pacem in Terris

Pacem in Terris  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An encyclical letter of Pope John XXIII, dated 11 Apr. 1963, on the achievement of peace through the establishment of justice. It argues that peace can be established in the ...
Greenham Common

Greenham Common  

A village near Newbury, Berkshire, the site of a US cruise missile base which became a focus for anti-nuclear protests in the 1980s.
Gustav Metzger

Gustav Metzger  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1926– )German-born artist who settled in England in 1939 as a refugee from Nazism (his parents were Polish Jews) and now calls himself stateless. From 1941 to 1944 he worked at joinery and farming, ...

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