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Inquisition

An ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX c.1232 for the suppression of heresy, at a time when certain heretical groups were regarded by the Church as enemies of society. ...

inquisition

inquisition   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
129 words

... The term ‘inquisition’ is sometimes applied to the document recording the result of a formal inquiry or investigation. It may, for instance, be the certificate recording the conclusion or verdict of a public inquest conducted by a coroner into how a deceased person met his or her death. In the context of the Roman Catholic Church, the Inquisition was the special tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX in 1231 to suppress heresy. This reached its most extreme development in the form of the Spanish Inquisition, responsible for many thousands of...

Inquisition

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
99 words

... Court set up by the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages to seek out and punish heresy. The accused were often tortured. Punishments ranged from penances to banishment or death. Kings and nobles supported the organized persecution of Jews, Protestants, and others considered enemies of church and state. The Inquisition was active in Europe from the 12th to the 15th centuries. The later Spanish Inquisition was instituted in 1483 at the request of the rulers of Spain and was not abolished until 1834 . In 1542 , a Roman Inquisition was set up to...

Inquisition

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
171 words

... . A Roman Catholic tribunal for the suppression of heresy and punishment of heretics. Strictly speaking, one should speak of ‘inquisitions’, since there was no single institution. The Inquisition came into being under Pope Gregory IX in 1232 , with papal inquisitors selected chiefly from among Dominicans and Franciscans because of their (theoretical) detachment from the world. In 1542 the Congregation of the Holy Office was established, being reorganized in 1587 into the Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition to supervise...

Inquisition

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
218 words

... , a body of ecclesiastical tribunals using inquisitorial procedures, first established in the 13th c. to prosecute Catholics suspected of heresy and other serious religious offences. In 1542 they were supplemented by the Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition or Holy Office, created by Pope Paul III to counter the threat of Protestantism. The Congregation gradually established control over the existing Italian tribunals (except those in Sicily and Sardinia , subject to the Spanish Inquisition). The Inquisition was not...

Inquisition

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,376 words

...pastoral duties, created offices of the Inquisition in France, Germany, and Italy; Spain, engaged in its reconquest from the Moors, was left without a formal Inquisition. Pope Sixtus IV , at the request of Spain's monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, established an independent Spanish Inquisition in 1478 , which eventually served as the model for the Inquisition in the New World. The Inquisition evolved in Mexico from its European origins and developed a complex bureaucracy. The Inquisition, with its sister institution of episcopal courts under the auspices of...

Inquisition

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
174 words

... (or Holy Office ) An ecclesiastical court established c .1232 for the detection and punishment of heretics, at a time when sectarian groups were threatening not only the orthodoxy of the Catholic religion but the stability of contemporary society. The Inquisition came into being when Frederick II issued an edict entrusting the hunting-out of heretics to state inquisitors; Pope Gregory IX claimed it as a papal responsiblity and appointed inquisitors, mostly drawn from the Franciscan and Dominican orders. He had previously ordered the Dominicans...

Inquisition

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,608 words

...Even in Italy the Spanish Inquisition was more severe than the Papal Inquisition; Sicily, which belonged to the Spanish system, executed more Italians for Protestantism than did cosmopolitan Venice. (The Portuguese Inquisition never displayed sufficient concern over Protestants, whether domestic or foreign, to put them in its autos-de-fe ). Trying to explain the appearance of Protestants in 1558 , the Spanish Inquisition argued that heretical books “have been the principal cause of this damage.” Both the Spanish and Papal Inquisitions made strenuous efforts to...

INQUISITION

INQUISITION   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
326 words

...1565 and 1595, and estimates are given that the Spanish Inquisition sentenced over thirty thousand Marranos to be burned at the stake, with another sixteen thousand punished in absentia by being burnt in effigy. Haim Beinart Conversos on Trial: The Inquisition in Ciudad Real , translated by Yael Guiladi (Jerusalem, 1981). Haim Beinart , The Records of the Inquisition: A Source of Jewish and Converso History (Jerusalem, 1967). Eleanor Hibbert The Spanish Inquisition: Its Rise, Growth, and End (New York, 1967). Renée Levine Melammed Heretics or...

inquisition

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A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
62 words

...inquisition n. A document containing the verdict of a coroner’s inquest . It consists of the caption (details of the coroner, jury, and the inquest hearing), the verdict (identification of the body and probable cause of death), and the attestation (signatures of the coroner and jurors). An open verdict may be recorded when there is insufficient evidence of the cause of death....

inquisition

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A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
64 words

... A document containing the verdict of a coroner's inquest . It consists of the caption (details of the coroner , jury , and the inquest hearing), the verdict (identification of the body and probable cause of death), and the attestation (signatures of the coroner and jurors). An open verdict may be recorded when there is insufficient evidence of the cause of...

Inquisition

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The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
210 words

... In the medieval Church, the Roman law inquisitio (inquiry) was introduced as a policing mechanism by Pope Innocent III and ratified at the 4 th Lateran Council ( 1215 ). Increasingly dealing with matters of heresy, the role of inquisitor, or theological magistrate, was linked with the Dominican order after 1235 . During the reconquest of Spain, a 1478 bull of Sixtus IV established the Spanish Inquisition , headed by Torquemada from 1483 . Until c .1530 , its main effort was against Judaizing; afterwards, its enemy became the reformed...

inquisition

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,133 words

... (2005). J. Given , Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline, and Resistance in Languedoc (1997). H. A. Kelly , Inquisitions and Other Trial Procedures in the Medieval West (2001). R. Kieckhefer , Repression of Heresy in Medieval Germany (1979). H. C. Lea , A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages , 3 vols (1888). B. Netanyahu , The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth-Century Spain ( 2 2001). M. G. Pegg , The Corruption of Angels: The Great Inquisition of 1245–1246 (2001). E. Peters , Inquisition ...

Inquisition

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,254 words
Illustration(s):
1

... The defence of orthodoxy was among the tasks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. With the affirmation of the papal monarchy , this task was gradually assumed by the papacy. Church historians generally tend to distinguish two types of inquisition: an episcopal inquisition and a papal inquisition. The episcopal inquisition lasted until the institution, under Gregory IX , of inquisitors specifically delegated by the apostolic see for the repression of heretics . The problem of formulating norms that would regulate forced return to orthodoxy was posed in...

Inquisition, Roman

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
252 words

..., Roman or (Italian) Inquisizione Romana . . In 1542 Pope Paul III established the Holy Office and the Inquisition to detect and prosecute heresy. The Holy Office is a Roman congregation, and so the Inquisition became known as the Roman Inquisition, a term which also distinguished it from the Spanish Inquisition and the Portuguese Inquisition , both of which were associated with the secular power. The designated leader of the Roman Inquisition was Cardinal Caraffa (later Pope Paul IV ). In theory the writ of the Roman Inquisition extended...

Inquisition, Portuguese

Inquisition, Portuguese   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
210 words

..., Portuguese , or (Portuguese) Inquisição Portuguesa . . In 1515 King Manuel I of Portugal sought permission from Pope Leo X to institute a Portuguese Inquisition modelled on the Spanish Inquisition , which had been active since 1480 . Permission was refused, but in 1531 the request was renewed by John III ; Pope Clement VII refused, but his successor, Paul III , allowed the Inquisition to be established in 1536 ; it was extended to Goa in 1561 . Unlike the Spanish Inquisition, which was under the direct control of the crown, the...

Inquisition, Spanish

Inquisition, Spanish   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
473 words

...papacy, the Inquisition was extended to Aragon and all of its territories except for Naples, which remained subject to the Roman Inquisition ; eventually the Spanish Inquisition was implemented in the Netherlands and in the Spanish colonies. From 1507 to 1517 the inquisitor-general was Cardinal Cisneros . In the early years of its operation, the Spanish Inquisition was exclusively concerned with the marranos , whose numbers had grown after a series of pogroms against the Jews during the fifteenth century. In some tribunals, the Inquisition began to...

Inquisition, the

Inquisition, the   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
375 words

...Inquisition had become moribund in the 15th cent., it was remodelled by Paul III ( see Holy Office ). This Roman Inquisition contributed to the eradication of incipient Protestantism in the Italian peninsula by the end of the 16th cent., but it was only in the Papal States that it exercised undisputed power. In the Iberian peninsula the Inquisition took a different form. Ferdinand V and Isabella , concerned about the problem of only nominally converted Jews in Castile, in 1478 persuaded Sixtus IV to issue a bull setting up a new Inquisition....

Inquisition, the

Inquisition, the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,914 words

...as has been suggested. The Inquisition also took complete control of the censorship of books. H. C. Lea , A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (3 vols., 1888; vol. 1, chs. 7–14, repr., with introd. by W. Ullmann, 1963). C. Douais , L'Inquisition: Ses origines, sa procédure (1906); J. [H.] Guiraud , Histoire de l'Inquisition au moyen âge (2 vols., 1935–8); H. Maisonneuve , Études sur les origines de l'Inquisition (1942; 2nd edn., 1960); Y. Dossat , Les Crises de l'Inquisition toulousaine au XIII e siècle (1233–1273)...

Inquisition, The

Inquisition, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The (Legal Latin inquisitio , ‘enquiry’) The name given to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the roman catholic church dealing with the prosecution of heresy. In the earlier days of the church excommunication was the normal punishment, but in the later 12th and early 13th centuries, disturbed by the growth of the albigenses , the church began to favour seeking the aid of the state. The Inquisition as such was instituted by Pope Gregory IX in 1231 , influenced by the activities of the Emperor Frederick II against heretics . Inquisitors...

Spanish Inquisition

Spanish Inquisition   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
166 words

...Inquisition A council authorized by Pope Sixtus IV in 1478 and organized under the Catholic monarchs Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain to combat heresy. Its main targets were converted Jews and Muslims, but it was also used against witchcraft and against political enemies. The first Grand Inquisitor was Torquemada . Its methods included the use of torture, confiscation, and burning at autos-da-fé . It ordered the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 , the attack on the Moriscos (Muslims living in Spain who were baptized Christians but retained Islamic...

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