View:

Overview

Indo-europeans

Subject: Archaeology

The Indo-Europeans comprise the largest of the world's language families and include at least eleven language stocks that are derived from a common ancestral language known as ...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...-European ( n. & adj. ) (Designating) the family of cognate languages (including English) spoken over the greater part of Europe and extending into Asia as far as northern India, or the hypothetical common ancestor of these languages ( Proto-Indo-European...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...-European A term invented in 1814 by the Egyptologist Thomas Young ( 1773–1829 ) and later adopted by scientists, anthropologists and philologists to describe the racial and linguistic origins of the main Indian and European peoples. The Indo-European languages have been classified in groups such as Indo-Iranian, Greek, Italic, celtic , Germanic, Balto-Slavic and...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
158 words

...-European It has long been recognized that many past and present languages including Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit (the literary language of India) share common features which show that they are the related descendants of an unattested parent language. They are now called Indo-European to indicate their geographical spread in early historical times. The parent language, which must have been spoken before writing was invented, is also known as Indo-European or as Proto-Indo-European. The earliest recorded examples of an Indo-European language date to the second...

Indo‐European

Indo‐European   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
78 words

...‐European The name applied to the great family of cognate languages (formerly called Indo‐Germanic and Aryan) spoken over most of Europe and extending into Asia as far as northern India. Much of the energy of the 19th‐century comparative philologists was devoted to illustrating the connections between these groups of languages of which fourteen are distinguished by W. B. Lockwood in A Panorama of IndoEuropean Languages ( 1972 ). See J. P. Mallory , In Search of the IndoEuropeans ...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
79 words

...-European A term coined by Western philologists to designate a family of languages with an inferred common ancestor (Proto-Indo-European), whose membership includes, on the Indian side, the Indo-Āryan languages, and, on the Western, such language groups as Germanic (including English), Italic (including Latin, French, Spanish), Greek, Slavic, and Celtic. Some scholars, notably Georges Dumézil , have used comparative philology and the study of mythology in the attempt to uncover common Indo-European thought-patterns and social structures. See also Jones ,...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Literature
Length:
99 words

...-European , the term used to refer to the family of languages which were originally spoken throughout much of Eurasia west of the Urals and also in the Indian subcontinent, with an outlying branch in Chinese Turkestan. The language from which all these languages are descended, called proto-Indo-European, can be reconstructed by historical and comparative linguistics. It was probably spoken in the Pontic-Caspian region of southern Russia in about 3000 bc . The earliest attested subgroups of the Indo-European language family are Anatolian, Hellenic, Indic,...

Indo-European

Indo-European adj. n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-European adj. n . (Of, relating to, or belonging to) a family of languages spoken by almost half the world's population, descended from a common tongue called Proto-Indo-European that is believed to have existed in the fifth millennium bc and subsequently to have fragmented into Germanic, Italic, Celtic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Greek, Armenian, Iranian, and Indic, and later still into many different languages, including English and all descendants from Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. By working backwards, linguists have reconstructed much of the...

Indo‐European

Indo‐European   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
216 words

...‐European [De] Term applied to a large group of cognate languages, including the majority of European language groups—Italic, Germanic, Celtic, Baltic, Slavonic, and Greek—as well as Indo‐Iranian (Persian and Hindi) and Sanskrit. Many attempts have been made to model and explain the dispersal of IndoEuropean languages, a problem fraught with difficulties because of having to correlate linguistic groups with material culture, ethnic communities, and cultural groups. Following earlier work by Gordon Childe and others, Marija Gimbutas has articulated and...

Indo-European

Indo-European   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
167 words

...-European Family of languages including, at historically its western limit, most of those spoken in Europe and, at its eastern limit, the major languages of all but the southern part of the Indian subcontinent. Usually divided into eleven main branches: in the order in which they are first attested, Anatolian (now extinct), Greek , Indo-Iranian , Italic (represented by the modern Romance languages), Celtic , Germanic (which includes English), Armenian , Tocharian (extinct), Slavic (Slavonic), Baltic (represented by Latvian and Lithuanian), and...

Indo-European languages

Indo-European languages   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
111 words

...-European languages Family of languages spoken in Europe and sw and s Asia, and used in all areas of European settlement, such as Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, the USA and Latin America. It consists of the following subgroups: Germanic , Celtic and Indo-Iranian (including Persian, Avestan and the Indic languages - Sanskrit , Pali and modern Hindi ). Other languages and groups in the family are Armenian, Albanian, Greek , the Italic languages (including Latin and its descendants, the Romance languages ), the Baltic group...

Indo-European mythology

Indo-European mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...by a non–Indo-European three-headed Monster . In time, Trito, assisted by the Indo-European warrior god, overcomes the monster and takes back his cattle. The point of the myth seems to be that foreigners steal while Indo-Europeans raid. The former activity is demeaning; the latter is noble. To put it in contemporary terms, bad raiders are terrorists, good raiders are freedom fighters. The cattle raid theme is important in particular cultures, especially the Irish. A central Indo-European hero theme with probable antecedents in proto–Indo-European society is...

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,453 words

...-European Languages “Indo-European” is the name of a large family of related languages that extend in modern times over much of the globe. In premodern times Old Icelandic, spoken in Iceland, and Tocharian, spoken in what is now the Xinjiang region of China, marked the western and eastern limits of Indo-European dispersal. By some counts there are more than four hundred Indo-European languages alive today, some with just a few thousand speakers, such as the Iranian language Yaghnobi spoken in the Yaghnob valley in Tajikistan. Both English and Spanish, on the...

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,692 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Indo-European Roots , rev. and edited by Calvert Watkins. Boston , 1985. Anthony, David W. “ The Archaeology of Indo-European Origins. ” Journal of Indo-European Studies 19 (1991): 193–222. Succinct reevaluation, with maps. Baldi, Philip. An Introduction to the Indo-European Languages . Carbondale, Ill., 1993. Handy overview, with minigrammars and sample texts. Benveniste, Emile. 1935. Origines de la formations des noms en indoeuropéen . Paris, 1935. Fundamental study of the origins and structure of the Indo-European root. Benveniste, Emile. Indo-European...

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,628 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Watkins, Calvert . 1995. How to kill a dragon: Aspects of Indo-European poetics . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Watkins, Calvert . 1997. Proto-Indo-European: Comparison and reconstruction. In The Indo-European languages , edited by P. Ramat and A. Giacolone Ramat . London: Routledge. Watkins, Calvert . 2000. The American Heritage dictionary of Indo-European roots . 2d ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Calvert...

Indo-European Roots

Indo-European Roots   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Indo-European Roots . The hypothetical forms and meanings of Indo-European (IE) words reconstructed by comparative philologists through comparison of living languages, the surviving records of their older forms, and dead languages. IE roots are usually printed with an asterisk (*) to show that they are unrecorded; many are also printed with a following hyphen (-) to indicate that an inflectional or derivational suffix follows. The form and meaning listed with a hypothetical root are those that plausibly explain the recorded forms and meanings; they are...

Migration, Indo-European

Migration, Indo-European   Reference library

James P. MALLORY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,535 words

...the Indo-Europeanization of Europe ( M. R. Dexter & K. Jones-Bley , Eds.), Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No. 18: Papers by Marija Gimbutas . Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man. Mallory, J. P. (1989). In search of the Indo-Europeans . London: Thames and Hudson. Mallory, J. P. (2002). Indo-Europeans and the steppelands: The model of language shift. In K. Jones-Bley , M. Huld , A. D. Volpe , & M. R. Dexter (Eds.), Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No. 44: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European...

Indo‐European and Indo‐Europeans

Indo‐European and Indo‐Europeans   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
128 words

...‐European and IndoEuropeans Languages such as Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit share regularities which indicate a close historical relationship ( see linguistics ). This grouping, termed IndoEuropean ( IE ) to indicate its geographical extent in historical times, includes some nine major living language‐groups and also extinct ones known only through inscriptions. The earliest recorded examples belong to the second millennium bc , and include the bronze age form of Greek written in Linear B (e.g. at Cnossus, 14th cent. bc ); but many unrecorded languages...

Indo-European and Indo-Europeans

Indo-European and Indo-Europeans   Reference library

Andrew Sherratt and Susan Sherratt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
726 words

...-European and Indo-Europeans For the last 200 years it has been recognized that languages such as Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit share regularities which indicate a close historical relationship ( see linguistics, comparative and historical ). This grouping, termed Indo-European (IE) to indicate its geographical extent in historical times, includes some nine major living language-groups and also extinct ones known only through inscriptions. The earliest recorded examples belong to the second millennium bc , and include extinct Anatolian languages such as ...

Indo-European Languages, The

Indo-European Languages, The   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,575 words

...Indo-European ( PIE ) or simply Indo-European ( IE ). Proto-Indo-European PIE is considered to have vanished soon after 2000 bc without leaving written records. Many details, especially its sound pattern, remain the subject of debate, and new theories of the date and place of the original ‘Indo-Europeans’ and the nature of their diaspora continue to be proposed. Their assumed homeland is a place where words shared by IE languages would have had a use. The word for fish was common to them but not the word for sea , so the territory of the Indo...

linguistics, historical and comparative (Indo-European)

linguistics, historical and comparative (Indo-European)   Reference library

Oswald John Louis Szmerenyi and Anna Morpurgo Davies

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,290 words

...and R. D. Janda (eds.), The Handbook of Historical Linguistics (2004). Introductions to Indo-European and Indo-European Grammars A. Meillet , Introduction à l'étude comparative des langues indo-européennes , 8th edn. (1937); O. J. L. Szemerényi , Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics (1996); M. Meier-Brügger , Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft 9th ed. (2010). B. Fortson IV , Indo-European Language and Culture, 2nd edn. (2009); J. Clackson , Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction (2007); K. Brugmann and B. Delbrück , Grundriss der...

View: