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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44 words

... Although only mentioned in the Bible in the book of Esther (1: 1; 8: 9), there was regular trade between India and the countries of the Mediterranean. The Malabar Christian communities of SW India claim to have been founded by the apostle...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21 words

... . Ceramics see Tile, §II, 2 . Metalwork see Bidri Ware ; Brass, §3 . Textiles see Carpet, §II, 2 ; COtton, §2 ; Kantha embroidery...

India

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The country is so named from its main river, the Indus, itself from Sanskrit sindhu , ‘river’. Related words are ‘Hindu’ (the religion and its adherents) and ‘Hindi’ (the language and its speakers). Hindustan is the stan or ‘country’ of the Hindus. See also hinduism . India paper A creamy coloured printing paper, originally made in China and Japan from vegetable fibre, and used for taking off the finest proofs of engraved plates. The India paper (or Oxford India paper) used for printing Bibles and high-class ‘thin paper’ and ‘pocket’ editions is a...

India

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
390 words

...of Christianity to the caste system of southern India. The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595 and the first English fleet in 1601 . Both countries established a commercial presence in India, and within twenty years had dismantled the Portuguese monopoly. Eventually eight European East India Companies were formed (by Austria, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, Sweden), all of which traded with India. The English company eventually emerged as the dominant European power in India, which it administered until the government was...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...India ( Bhārat ) , ( Hindustan ) The Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaņarājya) since 1950 after independence was achieved in 1947 when the Federal Union of India (and Dominion of India) was created. Although the English East India Company had established its first trading post on the west coast of India in 1608 , the first step in the creation of a British Empire in India was only taken as a result of the victory of Robert Clive ( 1725–74 ) at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 . At this time the Company desired no territory other than Bengal; it was...

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
529 words

...in India. Trade with India, testified to by Kosmas Indikopleustes , took four routes: via the Euphrates and Persian Gulf to Taprobana ( Ceylon ); via the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean; by overland caravan routes via Persia; and by caravan travel north of the Caspian Sea and across Central Asia. The primary exports from India were spices, incense, and probably precious stones: “the wealth of India,” according to the Vita Basilii , decorated the chapel of St. Clement in the Great Palace. Kosmas provides some factual information about India, but from...

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Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,049 words

...In the 2nd cent. NW India was occupied by the Graeco-Bactrian rulers ( see bactria ; demetrius (9) ii ; euthydemus (2–3) i-ii ; indo-greeks ; menander (2) ); but the rise of the Parthian empire ( see parthia ) separated India from the Greek lands, and invaders from central Asia ( c. 80–30 bc ) obliterated the Greek principalities in the Indus valley; see gandhara . In the 1st cent. ad Chinese silk reached the Roman dominions through India, but land communications with India remained irregular. The chief routes to India were (1) via Meshed and...

India

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Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade with India being extended eastwards by Indian traders. Nevertheless, Greek geographers always underrated the extent of India’s southward projection and exaggerated the size of Sri Lanka. From c . ad 200 direct Graeco-Roman trade declined, communications with India passed into the hands of intermediaries (Arabians, Axumites, Sasanid Persians), and India again became a land of fable to the Mediterranean world. The founders of Christian settlements in India came largely from Persia. Eric Herbert Warmington / Romila Thapar India Marble Roman...

India

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
182 words

... ad. (Europeans thought that the Chinese lived north of India and the Himalayas and south-east of the Scythians , by the Eastern Ocean ( see Oceanus ).) It is reported that in the time of Augustus 120 ships sailed to India every year. The chief Indian imports to Rome were perfumes and spices, gems including pearls and ivory, textiles and Chinese silk. Large hoards of Roman coins have been found in south India. From the third century ad trade declined and India became once more a fabulous land to...

India

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Nalini Natarajan

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
236 words

... . Dickens's popularity in India offers a noteworthy contrast to the lack of reference in his novels to India and the rest of the Empire, except as a backdrop to his central concern with English experience. India, along with Africa and the Caribbean, is only a convenient space to which characters are shipped off or where they can make their future ( see emigration ). In the novels, India is a land distant and exotic. It lends bogus respectability to Montague Tigg's Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company ( MC 27 et seq. ); it is...

India

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
349 words

... The world’s second most populous country and seventh-largest by land area. Located in mainland South Asia , historically it was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—also originated there. From the early 18th century, large parts of India came under the control of one of the world’s largest trading companies of the era, the British East India Company. Later, it was administered directly by Britain. This period saw the transfer en masse of British and other European...

India

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Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,609 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

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Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,605 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

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The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
34 words

... . See Bombay Geographical Society ; Curzon, George Nathaniel ; David-Neel, Alexandra ; Everest, George ; Exotic, Monstrous, and Wild Peoples and Animals ; Expeditions, World Exploration, subentry on England ; da Gama, Vasco ; Indian Ocean ; Pundit Mapmakers ; and ...

India

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Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and Ceylon Understanding references to ‘India’ in Late Roman texts is complicated by the flexible use of this term by contemporary authors. ‘India’ might denote any region south and/or east of the Red Sea, including China , Ethiopia ( Aksum ), the Indian subcontinent, and South-East Asia. Rufinus of Aquileia ’s account in his Ecclesiastical History of the conversion of Aksum to Christianity by the brothers Frumentius and Aedesius makes this especially clear in his account of the brothers setting out on a voyage to India (= India) before being...

India

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Jai Kharbanda

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... is the largest country in South Asia, whose brewing traditions come almost entirely from the British who imported beer for their colonial staff in the 18th century. This imported beer became known as “India pale ale,” a type of beer with a particularly high quantity of hops to help it survive the 5-month sea voyage from the UK to India. See india pale ale . The first brewery in India was created in the early 19th century in the Himalayan foothills by British general Edward Dyer, who began to produce an India pale ale, called “Lion,” using the fresh spring...

India

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David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

...in 1757 , which made him the ‘kingmaker’ in Bengal, India’s richest province. For the next thirty years, there was some hesitancy in British circles at building on these foundations. But, during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the opportunity was seized and by 1818 , with the defeat of the Maratha empire, the East India Company had gained supremacy. After the Indian mutiny of 1857 , however, the company was abolished and sovereignty passed to the British crown. In the 19th cent., India was undoubtedly Britain’s most important colony. It...

India

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
977 words

...(Arrian Alexander 6.19–7.20; Arrian On India ). Northwest India remained in the control of Seleucus I until 301 , but thereafter the region fell under a long succession of Mauryan, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek, Parthian, and central Asian rulers. The vast portion of India to the south was unfamiliar to residents of the Mediterranean, apart from the subcontinent's rich exports and the ports that flourished on the western and southeastern coasts. Although discontinuous contact between the Mediterranean and India existed in prehistory, regular trade did not...

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