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Index on Censorship

Subject: Literature

A periodical founded in 1972 by Writers and Scholars International, a group of writers, scholars, artists, and intellectuals concerned with the promotion of free expression, formed largely ...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
100 words

... on Censorship Campaigning British journal. Established by Stephen Spender in 1972 in response to Russian show trials, Index ’s concern is the defence of freedom of expression. Its contents mix fiction, analysis, and the ‘Index’, which documents acts of *censorship . Its contributors have included some of the world’s most distinguished writers and thinkers: Václav Havel , Nadine Gordimer , Noam Chomsky . Dubbed by Margaret Atwood as ‘one of the truly necessary publications’, it grants Freedom of Expression Awards, and has initiated monitoring,...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... on Censorship , a monthly journal established in 1972 by Writers and Scholars International, a group dedicated to recording and analysing the extent and effects of state censorship throughout the world; Stephen Spender and the Soviet dissident Pavel Litvinov were directly instrumental in the formation of the organization in 1971 . Having begun under Michael Scammell's editorship as Index , in 1975 it became known by its present title. South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, South America, and China have supplied many of the detailed case histories...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,309 words

.... Index on Censorship. International Projects . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/index-on-censorship-projects/ . Index on Censorship. Projects, 2008–2009 . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/?p=356 . Index on Censorship. Winners of the Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Awards 2007 . Press release. March 14, 2007. http://www.gristcommunications.com/media/Winners%20of%20the%20Index%20on%20Censorship%20Freedom%20of%20Expression%20Awards%202007.pdf . International Freedom of Expression Exchange. ...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A periodical founded in 1972 by Writers and Scholars International, a group of writers, scholars, artists, and intellectuals concerned with the promotion of free expression, formed largely at the ...
35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and Ends, 1769 ), a spate of short-lived satirical journals, on the model of English periodicals such as the Spectator , came into existence, four of them edited by *Novikov . 6 Private printers in Russia In the 1770s , leasing agreements were granted to some non-native printers, and in 1771 J. F. Hartung became the first private printer in Russia—for foreign books only. A 1783 decree permitted the free establishment of presses anywhere within the empire, subject to the *censorship of local police. Half a dozen independent presses sprang up in...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...who denounced the poet Théophile de Viau for freethinking in 1623 . Censorship was taken away from the universities and concentrated in the hands of the chancellor, a policy reinforced when Pierre Séguier was appointed to the chancery in 1633 . The Imprimerie royale, installed in 1640 at the Louvre, with Cramoisy as its first head, both conferred prestige and exercised control. Even the *Académie française ( 1635 ) was intended partly as a group of royal censors. Similar strictures on the rise of *newsletters were maintained by granting an exclusive...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Another two presses were founded later in the 17 th century, in Åbo ( see gezelius ) and Viborg. The increasing number of printers weakened direct royal control, but governmental and ecclesiastical influences remained strong due to official privileges and *censorship regulations. Everyday censorship was fairly lax, but enforced vehemently as soon as suspicions arose. Apart from confessionally dubious books, most attention was directed at criticism of the king (in Denmark particularly after the introduction of absolutism in 1660–61 ) and at the new medium...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on to the market during escalating conflicts in 16 th -century Europe. Widespread *censorship became one of the gravest intellectual and civil problems of the period. A law of 1502 regulated the intervention of the Crown in the printing industry and tried to resolve conflicts over the importation of ‘false and defective’ printed books. This was the first of many such measures that were to run alongside developing religious problems in Spain and Europe. Thus, a proclamation of 1558 established administrative and doctrinal control based on a complex...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... ( 1818–49 ), while the more popular end of the market was catered for by J. J. Weber ’s enormously successful Pfennig-Magazin ( 1833–55 ), modelled on the English Penny Magazine . Another of Weber’s ventures, launched in 1843 , was the Leipziger Illustrierte Zeitung , modelled on the Illustrated London News . As censorship restrictions were relaxed, ever more periodicals and magazines came on to the market. The Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung , which started with an edition of 14,000 copies in the 1890s , had sales of more than a million copies by...

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Enlightenment to the 16 th century A century earlier still, the Europe of the Enlightenment witnessed the closing stages of a tradition of professional MS book production that had been maintained unbroken since the Middle Ages. In countries subject to draconian state *censorship , philosophically heterodox and politically oppositional texts were still copied for sale by scribes working for booksellers. While surreptitious publication through the press was certainly common, the handwritten copy of a suspect work retained a cachet that made it a...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...second half of the century, as did cultural, economic, and educational life generally. The victory of the Counter-Reformation stifled much of the open debate that had characterized 16 th -century Polish intellectual life. Printing became subject to strict *censorship by the Church, which produced *indexes of prohibited books; *book burning became a public spectacle in Cracow. When Sigismund III moved his capital to Warsaw ( 1596 ), Cracow lost its supremacy as a printing centre because the *privileges for *government printing ceased. When the royal...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Printers had to submit any work they intended to publish for approval, and permission followed swiftly—as long as nothing was found against religion, against princes (i.e. other governments), or against morality in general. With the promulgation of the Index , the Inquisition’s attempts to impose censorship led to bitter disputes, not only with publishers but also with the Venetian authorities, who resented and obstructed Roman interference (Grendler). In 1596 a concordat was signed, however, ratifying a system of double approval, in which the inquisitor...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...listed in the * Index Librorum Prohibitorum —mainly heretical works, books of magic and divination and, in the 18 th century, works of the French philosophes —made its way into the Americas. Yet this form of control was not very strict, and smuggling from Britain and France was common, especially in the last decades of Spanish rule. Furthermore, every book printed in Spanish America had theoretically to be examined by the Inquisition, the Consejo de Indias , or the Real Audiencia before publication, but this form of *censorship was less effective in...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...computers was first applied to cataloguing and indexing books—catalogues of individual libraries developed into electronic databases. The *digitization of texts in China has grown exponentially in recent years without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient...

index

index  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Index Expurgatorium a list of passages to be deleted from a book before it was considered fit for reading by Roman Catholics; a list of authors considered fit to read only after the removal of ...
press regulation

press regulation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
*Freedom of the press remains an index for freedom of speech in most countries. As the UK Privy Council declared, however, as cited by a Queensland government minister during the ...
Adewale Maja-Pearce

Adewale Maja-Pearce  

(1953– ),British-Nigerian writer, born in London of British and Yoruba parents; he grew up in Lagos and was educated at the University College of Wales, Swansea, and London University's School ...
censorship

censorship  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
1. Any regime or context in which the content of what is publically expressed, exhibited, published, broadcast, or otherwise distributed is regulated or in which the circulation of information is ...
Thiong'o, Ngugi, wa

Thiong'o, Ngugi, wa  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Formerly known as James T. Ngugi (1938– ), Kenyan novelist. Weep Not, Child (1964), a novel of childhood that draws largely from his own upbringing and mission‐school education, ends by rejecting the ...
Art and Images

Art and Images  

The European Court of Human Rights has declared that “those who create, perform, distribute or exhibit works of art contribute to the exchange of ideas and opinions which is essential ...

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