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IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations ...

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO ) and the United Nations Environment Program ( UNEP ). It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (jointly with former Vice President Al Gore) in October 2007 . The IPCC assesses the scientific basis of the risk of human-induced and natural climate change, the potential impacts of climate change and options for adaptation to them, and the mitigation of...

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment ...
transport emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide)

transport emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
82 words

...emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide) The transport sector is estimated by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to account for 25–30 per cent of the world’s fossil fuel consumption. Of this share, light-duty road vehicles (cars) use around 45 per cent; heavy-duty road vehicles (lorries, trucks, coaches, and buses) use about 30 per cent; aircraft 12 per cent; maritime transport 7 per cent; while rail and inland waterways account for the remaining 6 per cent. See aircraft emissions ; radiative forcing...

Linking Hazard Vulnerability, Risk Reduction, and Adaptation

Linking Hazard Vulnerability, Risk Reduction, and Adaptation   Reference library

Jörn Birkmann and Joanna McMillan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,395 words
Illustration(s):
5

.... International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). Hewitt, K. (Ed.). (1983). Interpretation of calamity: From the viewpoint of human ecology . London, UK: Allen & Unwin. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (1990). IPCC first assessment report: Synthesis report . Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (1995). Climate change 1995: A report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, second assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change . Geneva, Switzerland:...

Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Gases   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...gases as CO 2 equivalent, that is, the CO 2 concentration alone that would have the same effect as all greenhouse gases combined. The Gases Under the Kyoto Protocol, there are six gases or groups of chemicals whose concentrations are monitored. [ See IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol .] They are listed below roughly in order of their contributions to the greenhouse effect: that contribution depends upon the abundance (concentration) of the gas as well as its GWP. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), GWP 1 This comes mainly from...

Ecology and Environment

Ecology and Environment   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,813 words

...Press, 2002. Deffeyes, Kenneth S . Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F . Environment, Scarcity, and Violence . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Klare, Michael T . Resource Wars. The New Landscape of Global...

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Framework Convention on Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Protocol sets forth more stringent requirements to monitor and report on emissions, as well as an expert review process and the development of a procedure to determine compliance with its binding emissions limitation commitments. [ See also Global Warming ; IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ; and Joint Implementation .] Bibliography Bodansky, D. “ The Emerging Climate Change Regime. ” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 20 (1995), 425–461. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.eg.20.110195.002233. General overview. Bodansky, D. “ The United Nations...

Inter-Agency Collaboration for Natural Hazard Management in Developed Countries

Inter-Agency Collaboration for Natural Hazard Management in Developed Countries   Reference library

Ray-Bennett Nibedita, Daniel Mendez, Edris Alam, and Christian Morgner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...(2013). World Disasters Report 2013: Focus on technology and the future of humanitarian action . Geneva, Switzerland: IFRC. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events, and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of...

Amazonia and Deforestation

Amazonia and Deforestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,747 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Cattle Ranching in Eastern Amazonia. ” Interciencia 13.5 (1988), 233–240. INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais). Projeto PRODES: Monitoramento da floresta Amazônica Brasileira por satélite . São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil: INPE, 2007. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Technical Summary . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ...

Environmental Footprints of Modernization Trends in Rice Production Systems of Southeast Asia

Environmental Footprints of Modernization Trends in Rice Production Systems of Southeast Asia   Reference library

Reiner Wassmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
12,431 words
Illustration(s):
2

...R. E. , & Huke, E. H. (1997). Rice area by type of culture: South, Southeast, and East Asia: A revised and updated data base . Los Baños, The Philippines: IRRI. IPCC—Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . (2006). 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories . Hayama, Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Studies (IGES). IPCC—Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Jain, N. , Dubey, R. , Dubey, D. , & Singh, J. (2013)...

Natural Hazards Governance in Nigeria

Natural Hazards Governance in Nigeria   Reference library

Steve I. Onu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,725 words
Illustration(s):
5

...V. C. (2003). Monitoring, characterization and controlling of flood water erosion using remote sensing techniques . Proceedings of the technical session of the 38th annual general meeting of the conference of the Nigerian Institution of Surveyors, Lokoja. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2007). Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC Assessment. Jongman, B ., Winsemius, H. C ., Fraser, S. , & Ward, P. J. (2018). Assessment and adaptation to climate...

Climate Change and Amplified Representations of Natural Hazards in Institutional Cultures

Climate Change and Amplified Representations of Natural Hazards in Institutional Cultures   Reference library

Scott Bremer, Paul Schneider, and Bruce Glavovic

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...W. Rhodes , S. A. Binder , & B. A. Rockman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of political institutions (pp. 56–74). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Hulme, M. (2009). Why we disagree about climate change . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects [ C. B. Field et al. (Eds)]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Jasanoff, S. (2004). The idiom of co-production. In S. Jasanoff (Ed.), States...

The Politics of Climate Change

The Politics of Climate Change   Reference library

Loren R. Cass

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,817 words

.... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hyder, T.O. (1992) Climate Negotiations: The North-South Perspective. In I.M. Mintzer (ed.) Confronting Climate Change: Risks, Implications and Responses . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 323–36. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report . Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC. Iwama, T. (ed.) (1991) Policies and Laws on Global Warming: International...

The United States and International Environmental Politics

The United States and International Environmental Politics   Reference library

Paul G. Harris

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,259 words

...Briefing . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hovi, J. , Skodvin, T. , and Andresen, S. (2003) The Persistence of the Kyoto Protocol: Why Other Annex I Countries Move on Without the United States. Global Environmental Politics 3 (4), 1–23. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ivanova, M. , and Esty, D.C. (2008) Reclaiming US Leadership in Global Environmental Governance. SAIS Review 28 (2), 57–75. Jacques, P.J. , Dunlap, R.E. ,...

Adaptation

Adaptation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,613 words
Illustration(s):
3

...may be reduced. Bibliography Futuyma, D. J. Evolutionary Biology , 2nd ed. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer, 1986. Gienapp, P. , et al. “ Climate Change and Evolution: Disentangling Environmental and Genetic Responses .” Molecular Ecology 17 (2008): 167–178. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pelini S. L. , et al. “ Translocation experiments in butterfly species reveal limitations to range shifts under climate change .” Proceedings of the...

Global Overview of the Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Natural Hazard Governance

Global Overview of the Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Natural Hazard Governance   Reference library

Terry Gibson and Benjamin Wisner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Committee (of the UN) ICA International Co-operative Alliance ICVA International Council of Voluntary Agencies IFRC International Federation of Red Cross (and Red Crescent) IMF International Monetary Fund INGO International non-governmental organization IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISO International Organization for Standardization JA Justiça Ambiental JVE Jeunes Volontaires pour l’ Environnement (West African NGO network) LNGO Local non-governmental organization NNGO National non-governmental organization NRC Norwegian Refugee Council...

Natural Hazards Governance in Western Europe

Natural Hazards Governance in Western Europe   Reference library

Florian Roth, Timothy Prior, and Marco Käser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,425 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of community resilience to future flood risk . Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers , 42 (1), 14–28. Howell, A. (2015). Resilience as enhancement: Governmentality and political economy beyond “responsibilisation.” Politics . IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: A special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Jager, A. De , Dottori, F. , Galbusera, L. , ...

Natural Hazards Governance in South Africa

Natural Hazards Governance in South Africa   Reference library

D. van Niekerk, G. J. Wentink, and L. B. Shoroma

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,207 words
Illustration(s):
5

...for informal settlements . Cape Town, South Africa: Periperi. IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) . (2011). Analysis of legislation related to disaster risk reduction in South Africa . Geneva, Switzerland: IFRC. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation : Summary for policy makers . A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University...

Well Construction, Cones of Depression, and Groundwater Sharing Approaches

Well Construction, Cones of Depression, and Groundwater Sharing Approaches   Reference library

Fidel Ribera Urenda

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
13,950 words
Illustration(s):
15

...2401–2414). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Iglesias, J. (2001). Comportamiento y afecciones de un acuífero por la extracción de agua. El agua subterránea: Prospección, captación y repercusiones en la obra civil (pp. 185–200). Burgos, Spain: Universidad de Burgos. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . (2007). Climate change and its impacts in the near and long term under different scenarios (Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, pp. 43–54). Geneva, Switzerland. Iribar, V. , & Custodio...

International Organization and Environmental Governance

International Organization and Environmental Governance   Reference library

Joshua William Busby

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
17,083 words

...trade and environment links. At www.wto.org/english/tratop_E/envir_e/envir_e.htm , accessed August 20, 2009. Scientific Information Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. At www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.aspx , accessed August 20, 2009. IPCC ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ). At www.ipcc.ch/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Advocacy Organizations and Think Tanks Climate Action Network. At www.climatenetwork.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Council on Foreign Relations, environment links. At www.cfr.org/issue/17/energyenvironment...

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