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I. A. Richards

Subject: Literature

(1893–1979), critic and poet, became a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1929, then in 1931 moved to Harvard, where he devoted many years to the study of linguistics and ...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A. (1893–1979)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
41 words

..., I. A. ( Ivor Armstrong Richards ) ( 1893–1979 ) English literary critic and theorist. Richard's emphasis on close reading and verbal analysis of literary works is expounded in The Principles of Literary Criticism ( 1924 ) and Practical Criticism ( 1929 ). See also literary...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., I. A. ( Ivor Armstrong Richards ) ( 1893–1979 ), English critic , born in Cheshire, educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge. He was a teacher of enormous importance for the development of modern methods of reading and thinking about literature. Principles of Literary Criticism ( 1925 ) was acclaimed by T. S. Eliot not only for changing the course of criticism but for altering the meaning of the term, and there were many who thought Richards had reinvented the very notion of reading. With Richards, Allen Tate said, it became a matter of...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A. (1893–1979)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

..., I. A. [ Ivor Armstrong Richards ] ( 1893–1979 ) British critic and poet The Meaning of Meaning ( 1923 ) Non-Fiction Principles of Literary Criticism ( 1924 ) Non-Fiction Science and Poetry ( 1926 ) Non-Fiction Practical Criticism ( 1929 ) Non-Fiction Mencius on the Mind ( 1932 ) Non-Fiction Coleridge on Imagination ( 1934 ) Non-Fiction Speculative Instruments ( 1955 ) Non-Fiction Goodbye Earth, and Other Poems ( 1958 ) Poetry The Screens, and Other Poems ( 1960 ) Poetry Internal Colloquies ( 1972 ) ...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,649 words

...skeptical response to Richards's notion that “poetry is capable of saving us,” a theme that Eliot returned to in chapter 7 of The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933). McCallum, Pamela . Literature and Method: Towards a Critique of I. A. Richards, T. S. Eliot and F. R. Leavis . Dublin, Ireland, 1983. Measures Richards against two of his most influential contemporaries; includes a critical bibliography. Russo, John Paul . I. A. Richards: His Life and Work . London, 1989. Exhaustive biography and critical assessment of Richards's contribution to the...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A. (1893–1979)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
181 words

..., I. A. ( Ivor Armstrong ) ( 1893–1979 ) Rhetorician , one of the first lecturers in English at Cambridge ( 1919–29 ), where he wrote his best-known works, Principles of Literary Criticism ( 1924 ), Science and Poetry ( 1926 ), and Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgement ( 1929 ). The last of these helped to establish practical criticism as a central feature of literary education; while the first two proposed that poetry promotes vital kinds of psychological flexibility, in part because it offers ‘pseudo-statements’ rather than true...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A. (1893–1979)   Reference library

Gavin Ewart

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., I. A. ( Ivor Armstrong ) ( 1893–1979 ) Educated at Clifton and Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow. Famous as the author of Principles of Literary Criticism ( 1925 ) and Practical Criticism ( 1929 ), and as the inventor, with C. K. Ogden , of Basic English, Richards was one of this century's best literary critics. His poems, because of this, are often considered side-efforts. Yet, although they do not have the imagination and beauty to be found in the verse of his brilliant pupil William * Empson , they still have many...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A. (1893–1979)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
342 words

..., I. A. ( Ivor Armstrong ) ( 1893–1979 ) Rhetorician , born in Cheshire, the son of a factory manager, and educated at Clifton College, Bristol, before studying moral sciences at Magdalene College, Cambridge. He became one of the first lecturers in English at Cambridge ( 1919–29 ), where he wrote his best-known works. With his friend C. K. Ogden ( 1889–1957 ) he published two early books, The Foundations of Aesthetics ( 1922 , with J. Wood ) and The Meaning of Meaning ( 1923 ), but he is best known for the next three, Principles of Literary...

I. A. Richards

I. A. Richards (1893–1979)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
60 words

...0I.A. I. A. Richards 1893 – 1979 English literary critic and poet . He emphasized the importance of close textual study, and praised irony, ambiguity, and allusiveness It [ poetry ] is capable of saving us; it is a perfectly possible means of overcoming chaos. Science and Poetry (1926) [ poetry ] is capable of saving capable of saving us means of overcoming ...

I. A. Richards

I. A. Richards (1893–1979)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
47 words

...0I0A I. A. Richards 1893 – 1979 English literary critic It [ poetry ] is capable of saving us; it is a perfectly possible means of overcoming chaos. Science and Poetry (1926) ch. 7 [ poetry ] is capable of saving us capable of saving us means of overcoming ...

Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A.   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
45 words
Richards, I. A.

Richards, I. A.   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
50 words
I. A. Richards

I. A. Richards  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1893–1979),critic and poet, became a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1929, then in 1931 moved to Harvard, where he devoted many years to the study of linguistics and education. He was the ...
Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...focused on the relationship between Richard’s physical deformities and his deviant behaviour, initially disclosed in his two major soliloquies in Richard Duke of York (3.2, 5.6). Freud argued that Richard exemplified the pathology of ‘exceptional’ persons who flaunt their physical limitations to excuse their antisocial desires, which serve as compensation: ‘Nature has done me a grievous wrong in denying me the beauty of form which wins human love. Life owes me reparation for this, and I will see that I get it. I have a right to be an exception, to...

Richard II

Richard II   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the deposition scene, suggest a play, or at least a subject, of considerable topical interest: depicting the feasibility of dethroning a childless English monarch was clearly felt to be controversial during Elizabeth I’s later years, and the episode depicting Richard’s abdication was evidently a victim of political censorship , probably removed in performance as well as in print until after the Queen’s death. Sensitive as the play proved, however, Shakespeare’s modifications to his historical material suggest, if anything, a toning-down of its potential for...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to be a name concentrated in North Wales. A further complication is that it had arisen independently in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and perhaps elsewhere. It must not be assumed that names such as Roberts, Edwards, or Richards are invariably Welsh in origin. Ellis is another example of a name that was used in many parts of England in the Middle Ages. Even such a name as Lloyd, which is derived from the Celtic word llwyd , meaning ‘grey’, was commonly found in English counties on the Welsh Borders in the Middle Ages. On the other hand, Hopkin(s), a...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... transhumance . Leading researchers are Robert A. Dodgshon , Ian D. Whyte , I. S. MacDonald , and T. M. Devine ; while Ian Carter has brought a sociologist's perspective to the field. The Highland Clearances have received objective scrutiny from writers such as Malcolm Gray , A. J. Youngson , Eric Richards , and T. M. Devine . Philip Gaskell's Morvern Transformed ( 1968 , 1980 , 1996 ) is one of the few in‐depth local studies. Some of these specialists are in fact geographers, bringing with them a number of models on the uses of space. ‘It is...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...soon as the King pays Mortimer’s ransom. The King, however, insists that Mortimer, who has married Glyndŵr’s daughter, is a traitor, and, refusing to believe Hotspur’s account of Mortimer’s combat with the Welshman, reiterates his demand for the prisoners. Left alone, Northumberland and the angrily voluble Hotspur, soon rejoined by Worcester, reflect on the ingratitude of the man they helped to make king in Richard II’s place and on Richard’s alleged choice of Mortimer as his heir, and Worcester, when Hotspur has finally calmed down sufficiently to listen,...

Place-Names

Place-Names   Quick reference

Margaret Gelling

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,757 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...under the directorship of Kay Muir, has published a series of county volumes. A major development in Wales is the recent foundation of the Place‐Name Research Centre at the University of Bangor, of which Hywel Wyn Owen is the Director. This houses a database of Welsh place‐name material, much of which was assembled by the late Melville Richards . In 2007 Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan published a Dictionary of the Place‐Names of Wales , which (as Gwenedd Pierce notes in a foreword) is ‘a milestone in the history of Welsh place‐name studies’....

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...E. F. , ‘The Separation of Psychology from Philosophy’, in C. L. Ten , ed., The Nineteenth Century , London, 1994; Richards, G. , Mental Machinery: The Origins and Consequence of Psychological Ideas , i: 1600–1850 , London, 1992; Rousseau, G. S. , ‘Psychology’, in G. S. Rousseau & R. Porter , eds., The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in Eighteenth-Century Science , Cambridge, 1980; Vidal, F. , ‘ Psychology in the 18th Century: A View from Encyclopedias ’, History of the Human Sciences , 6 (1993), 89–119. Robert...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...would eventually make his name a staple of journalistic history. Franklin built his reputation by capitalizing on nearly every niche in an increasingly intercolonial print culture. In addition to the Gazette and his * Poor Richard’s Almanack , he published books occasionally at his own risk, generally English works of proven appeal. More often, he printed books and pamphlets for other individuals or for corporate bodies such as the Presbyterian synod or the *Library Company of Philadelphia , which he founded in 1731 . A significant portion of his...

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