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Hyperpyron

(νόμισμα ὑπέρπυρον, lit. “highly refined”), the gold coin of standard weight (4.55 g) but only 20.5 carats fine, introduced by Alexios I in 1092 and continued by his successors, though ...

Hyperpyron

Hyperpyron   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
130 words

... (νόμισμα ὑπέρπυρον, lit. “highly refined”), the gold coin of standard weight (4.55 g) but only 20.5 carats fine, introduced by Alexios I in 1092 and continued by his successors, though a few earlier 11th-C. references show the name already had been applied to nomismata . The term continued in use until the end of the empire, but after gold coins ceased to be struck at Byz. in the mid-14th C. it became a money of account, divided notionally into 24 keratia . The shortened forms perperum (Lat.) and perpero (It.) are Western. In the Balkans and...

Hyperpyron

Hyperpyron  

(νόμισμα ὑπέρπυρον, lit. “highly refined”), the gold coin of standard weight (4.55 g) but only 20.5 carats fine, introduced by Alexios I in 1092 and continued by his successors, though ...
Manuelation

Manuelation  

(νόμισμα μανουηλα̑τον), one of several terms (cf. trikephalon) used in the late 12th and early 13th C. for the one-third hyperpyron or electrum trachy, a denomination last struck in any ...
Trikephalon

Trikephalon  

(νόμισμα τρικέφαλον, lit. “three-header”), sometimes abbreviated Γκλ′ (F. Dölger, BZ 27 [1927] 296, n.4); a word applied to the one-third hyperpyron or electrum trachy of the early 12th C., which ...
Nomisma

Nomisma   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
60 words

...but specifically used of the standard gold coin of 24 keratia which formed the basis of the late Roman and Byz. monetary system. It was thus identical with the coin called in Latin a solidus . From the late 11th C. onward the standard gold coin was more commonly termed an hyperpyron . Philip...

Trikephalon

Trikephalon   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
134 words

...(νόμισμα τρικέφαλον, lit. “three-header”), sometimes abbreviated Γ κλ′ ( F. Dölger , BZ 27 [ 1927 ] 296, n.4); a word applied to the one-third hyperpyron or electrum trachy of the early 12th C., which had on it a total of three “heads”: that of the emperor, the Virgin, and Christ (in the form of a medallion held by the Virgin), in contrast to the hyperpyron, which had the figures of Christ and the emperor only. The three decades during which such trikephala were issued ( 1092–1118 ) resulted in trikephalon becoming one of the several names...

Doukatopoulon

Doukatopoulon   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
92 words

...of the early 15th C. (S. Kugéas, BZ 23 [ 1914–19 ] 149). Badoer called it a ducatello or duchatello and valued it normally as 1.5 keratia , thus identifying it with the smallest silver coin (approximately 1 g) then being struck at Constantinople, the 1/16th of a hyperpyron and 1/8th of a stauraton . Its name, a diminutive of “ducat,” resulted from its being a continuation of the depreciated basilikon ducat of the 1340s. Hendy , Economy 540f. Philip...

Manuelation

Manuelation   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
65 words

...(νόμισμα μανουηλα̑τον), one of several terms (cf. trikephalon ) used in the late 12th and early 13th C. for the one-third hyperpyron or electrum trachy , a denomination last struck in any quantity under Manuel I and taking its name from him. It is more common in its Latin form ( manuellatus or variant) than in Greek. Hendy , Coinage 19f, 23, 27, 225f. Philip...

Rent

Rent   Reference library

Mark C. Bartusis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
323 words

...with few exceptions, that the rent for cereal-producing land was 1/3 the harvest or 1 hyperpyron for 10 modioi of land. For vineyards, there are few figures; according to a 13th–14th-C. land lease formulary (Sathas, MB 6:621.10–11), the owner and renter split equally the wine produced. A theoretical average rent may be calculated as 1 hyperpyron per modios of vineyard. The attested rates of the pakton of vineyards, however, are much lower, fluctuating at 1 hyperpyron for 6–8 modioi of vineyards—therefore N. Svoronos (in Lavra 4:162) suggested...

Tremissis

Tremissis   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
155 words

...for ceremonial purposes, and none are known after the reign of Basil I . In Italy and Sicily this coin continued in common use until the end of Byz. rule (fall of Syracuse 878 ). The later electrum trachy was the value equivalent of the old tremissis, being one-third of a hyperpyron , but was never called by that name. O. Ulrich-Bansa , Les premières émissions du tremis aureus (383–395), Bulletin du Circle d'études numismatiques 5 (1968) 80–94. DOC 3:22. Philip...

Basilikon

Basilikon   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
262 words

...but Byz. sources of the early 14th C. often made no distinction between the two and called both doukatoi . The basilikon was worth 1/12th of a hyperpyron , so that it corresponded to the old miliaresion , which had become no more than a money of account as two keratia . The value of the actual coins, however, fluctuated with the price of silver and was usually less, as ratios of between 12.5 and 15 to the hyperpyron were common. Half basilika were also minted. The introduction of the basilikon marked a revival in the empire of the large-scale use of silver...

Hearth Tax

Hearth Tax   Reference library

Mark C. Bartusis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
226 words

...scholars maintain that it had simply become a component of the telos . On the basis of a mathematical analysis of the telos of 14th-C. paroikoi , Lefort (“Fiscalité” 342f) concludes that only paroikoi without taxable property paid a hearth tax, usually amounting to 1/6 hyperpyron. K. Chvostova ( VizVrem 39 [ 1978 ] 63–71) rejects Lefort's method of calculation and assumes that the telos of every 14th-C. paroikos contained, in a latent form, the hearth tax, but it was esp. significant in poorer households. The verb kapnologeo (lit. “to count...

Stauraton

Stauraton   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
192 words

...a scepter in the form of a cross (σταυρóς). Later, more famously, it was used for the heavy silver coins (initially approximately 8.5 g, but falling to 6 g) that form the most characteristic feature of the last century of Byz. coinage. They were worth half a (notional) gold hyperpyron . The date of their introduction is uncertain: while they have been generally ascribed to the 1370s, either to John V or Andronikos IV ( 1376–79 )—they figure as istevret in Aşiqpaşazade 's account of Bayezid 's wedding in 1381/2 —some evidence favors treating these as...

Tornese

Tornese   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
200 words

...to several denominations of low-grade billon coins of much the same value minted at Venice, in the Aegean area, and at Constantinople itself, though the Greek name for them is unknown. At Constantinople in the 1330s 8 tornesi were reckoned to the basilikon and 96 to the hyperpyron ; and a century later the account book of Badoer ( 1436–40 ) shows the stauraton , the standard silver coin then in use, as worth 96 tornesi. G. Schlumberger , Numismatique de l'Orient latin (Paris 1878; rp. Graz 1954) 308–11, 321. Grierson , Byz. Coins 279–81, 298,...

Zeugaratos

Zeugaratos   Reference library

Mark C. Bartusis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
212 words

...C. sets the wealth of a zeugaratos at 24 nomismata, a boidatos at 12 nomismata, and an aktemon at 6 nomismata. In the cadaster of Lampsakos ( 1218/19 ) the annual base tax on zeugaratoi appears to be 10 hyperpyra, on boidatoi 5, aktemones 2.5 to 3, and aporoi 1 hyperpyron, in addition to corvées commutable for cash. A treatise dated 1232 , probably from Cyprus, provides somewhat different figures: a zeugaratos held 40 modioi of land with a total wealth of 60 hyperpyra, and a pezos ( aktemon ) 30 modioi and 40 hyperpyra. Laiou , ...

Coinage, Foreign

Coinage, Foreign   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
272 words

...the Venetian silver ducat, copied as the basilikon , and the Frankish tornese . Later the Venetian gold ducat, imitated at Chios and at Fogliavecchia on the neighboring mainland and by the Genoese at Pera in the suburbs of Constantinople itself, replaced the Byz. gold hyperpyron , which ceased to be minted in the 1350s. From ca. 1380 onward the small change of Constantinople seems to have largely consisted of Turkish akçes, minted mainly at Bursa, which supplemented the locally produced aspers and were of about the same value. T. Bertelè , Moneta...

Telos

Telos   Reference library

Mark C. Bartusis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
292 words

...term teloumenon . Quantitative studies of 14th-C. praktika ( J. Lefort , RH 252 [ 1974 ] 315–52; K. Chvostova , VizVrem 39 [ 1978 ] 63–75) indicate that there were general guidelines for the rates at which property was taxed (e.g., arable land was generally taxed at 1 hyperpyron per 50 modioi ) and that these guidelines varied by locality and period. The fact that staseis with identical property in the same village often were assessed a different telos suggests that social and other nonfiscal factors played a significant role in the calculation of...

Solidus

Solidus   Reference library

Philip Grierson

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
292 words

...followed by a catastrophic decline between the 1030s and 1080s. Solidi of Nikephoros III were only about 33 percent fine and those of the early years of Alexios I ceased to be of gold at all. A return to good quality gold was made in 1092 , with the introduction of the hyperpyron . Provincial gold coins, notably those of 8th-C. Italy and of 9th-C. Sicily, had often been of much poorer gold than those of Constantinople. Solidi weighing less than the theoretical 24 carats—the precise figures vary from 20 to 23 carats—had been struck in small quantities in...

Angelus, Dynasty of

Angelus, Dynasty of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
509 words

...resigned himself to paying tribute to the German Emperor Henry VI , from which he was freed by Henry's unexpected death. He multiplied concessions to the Italian towns, notably Venice by a treaty of 1198 , though safeguarding the Byzantine monopoly in the Black Sea. The hyperpyron was heavily devalued and the resources of an Empire run by often incompetent and venal governors visibly diminished. Worse still, the emperor let his nephew Alexius, Isaac's son, escape and seek refuge with his brother-in-law Philip of Swabia , emperor of Germany . On...

Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos   Reference library

Alice-Mary Talbot

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
418 words

...to resolve the Arsenite schism until 1310 . He was staunchly Orthodox and pious, even superstitious, and very much under the influence of Patr. Athanasios I . The financial difficulties of the empire during his reign are reflected in the continuing depreciation of the hyperpyron . The resulting rise in prices and the emperor's use of a “scorched-earth policy” in Thrace in an attempt to stop the Catalans ( A. Laiou , Byzantion 37 [ 1967 ] 91–113) led to widespread famine. Andronikos tried to increase revenues by raising taxes, adding a new tax on...

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