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Overview

Home Office Large Major Enquiry System

Subject: Law

(HOLMES) A computerized database used in the investigation of major crimes and other police operations where large amounts of data have to be processed. Now in its second ...

Home Office Large Major Enquiry System

Home Office Large Major Enquiry System   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
105 words

... Office Large Major Enquiry System ( HOLMES ) A computerized database used in the investigation of major crimes and other police operations where large amounts of data have to be processed. Now in its second generation as HOLMES2 it makes the investigation process of a major inquiry easier than previous manual systems of filing and retrieving data which proved incapable of handling very large inquiries. It helps investigating officers to identify and plot lines of inquiry and keep track of evidence. HOLMES2 also has a Casualty Bureau function to help...

Home Office Large Major Enquiry System

Home Office Large Major Enquiry System  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(HOLMES)A computerized database used in the investigation of major crimes and other police operations where large amounts of data have to be processed. Now in its second generation as HOLMES2 it ...
Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his mark as the first salaried magistrate at London's Bow Street police office. Writing in the 1752 Covent Garden Journal , he expressed concern about the growth of ‘that very large and powerful body which form the fourth estate in this community, and have long been dignified and distinguished by the name of ‘ The Mob ’, who, in London, were no longer subject to the traditional forms of control by their social superiors. This panic over ‘the mob’ is also voiced in Fielding's An Enquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers ( 1751 ), designed to...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The Reports of the Charity Commissioners of the earlier 19th century, often known as the reports of the Brougham Commission, were published from 1819 in 32 volumes. The Reports of the Schools Inquiry Commission (the Taunton Commission, 1868–9 ) and the Reports of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education (Bryce Commission, 1895 ) are a major source of information on the grammar and other secondary schools of the period. See John Roach , A History of Secondary Education in England, 1800–1870 (1986). The Newcastle Commission ( 1857 )...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... In Ireland the same system of Poor Law unions, elected guardians, and union workhouses began in 1838 . The Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Conditions of the Poorer Classes in Ireland, which was established in 1833 , reported that 2 385 000 people were in need of relief from poverty. The report led to the passing of the Act for the More Effectual Relief of the Destitute Poor in Ireland ( 1838 ), which divided Ireland into 130 (later 163) unions, each of which had a workhouse run by an elected board of guardians on the English system. Some workhouses have...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... of surviving copies to establish what proportion were printed on *vellum and how many were *rubricated and/or illuminated. In the one edition subjected to such an inquiry, the 1478 folio Roman Breviary, 24 of the 45 known copies are vellum and almost all exhibit hand-added decoration of the first order (Armstrong). Publishing in the long term went in the opposite direction, as large, high-quality, hand-embellished, polychrome books on parchment (which approximated MSS) were replaced by small, sometimes shoddily printed, monochrome books on paper....

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... *Center for Editions of American Authors (established 1963 ). Bowers’s major statements of bibliographical and editorial principle and method may be found in Principles of Bibliographical Description ( 1949 ), On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists ( 1955 ), Textual and Literary Criticism ( 1959 ), and Bibliography and Textual Criticism ( 1964 ). A major predicate of the work of McKerrow, Greg, Bowers, and Tanselle is that the goal of literary editorial enquiry is the text intended finally by the author. In an age where the concept of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...created in 1769 by the merger of two existing societies. Such institutions subscribed to the transatlantic notion of a ‘republic of letters’, in which free inquiry would counteract the long-standing effects of church and state control. At the same time, evangelicals, influenced by the mid-century Great Awakening, developed their own reading communities, often based in the libraries and homes of local ministers and fuelled by opposition to worldly urban elites and self-consciously polite culture. Reading practices differed according to the nature of the...

racial and ethnic minorities in the criminal justice system

racial and ethnic minorities in the criminal justice system   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
516 words

... into the killing of Stephen Lawrence —to improve race equality in the criminal justice system. These include better training, improving the available statistical information, and establishing a Criminal Justice Race Unit within the Home Office. Ethnic monitoring has also improved. From April 2003 , ethnicity began to be recorded using a standardized system based on sixteen categories created for the 2001 National Census. These categories are sub‐divisions of five larger ethnic groupings: white, mixed, Asian, black, or ‘other’. Individuals self‐classify by...

Van Buren, Martin

Van Buren, Martin   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,820 words

...the Democratic party and developed the ideas that led to the two-party system in the United States. His Presidency was a failure, in large measure because of monetary policies begun by his predecessor and continued in his own administration. Van Buren was the son of a tavern keeper whose forebears had come from Holland 150 years before, and Dutch was still spoken in his home. He received no formal education after his local elementary school but read law for seven years in a lawyer's office and began practicing in 1803 . Van Buren's wife died in 1819 after...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,726 words

...alone to monitor the executive on national security policy. They have created such research arms as the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), which, among other things, provides independent forecasts on the domestic and international economies. They have also upgraded the quality of the Library of Congress research staff, as well as their teams of investigators in the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Congressional inquiries have become one of the chief means used by lawmakers to review the foreign policy initiatives of the executive branch. The...

National Security Apparatus, American

National Security Apparatus, American   Reference library

Loch K. Johnson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,733 words

...alone to monitor the executive on national security policy. They have created such research arms as the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), which, among other things, provides independent forecasts on the domestic and international economies. They have also upgraded the quality of the Library of Congress research staff, as well as their teams of investigators in the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Congressional inquiries have become one of the chief means used by lawmakers to review the foreign policy initiatives of the executive branch. The...

Communications

Communications   Reference library

David M. Henkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 1845 , the American postal system functioned primarily as a broadcast network. Low postage rates for newspaper transmission meant that most of the mail was printed news and most mail patrons saw the post office as a site of news transmission. And because publishers could exchange their issues free of charge, newspapers tended to reprint reports and editorials published elsewhere, typically in the nation's leading cities. Although the news might arrive at different points in time in different parts of the country, the postal system circulated a limited range of...

Social Sciences

Social Sciences   Reference library

Mark C. Smith and Mark Solovey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...advances as a crucial source of scientific progress, especially statistical methods and other quantitative techniques of inquiry that became central in such important fields as social survey research, public opinion polling, and econometric analysis. A sense of across-the-board social science progress was also bolstered by widespread enthusiasm for interdisciplinary frameworks of inquiry, including a form of social system analysis championed by the prominent Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons and rapid growth of interdisciplinary academic research...

von Hayek, Friedrich August

von Hayek, Friedrich August (1899–1992)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,929 words

...social and political theory is to be found in his philosophical commitment to a specific epistemological position. Viewed from such a perspective, the continuity between Hayek's inquiries into economics and his contributions to political and legal philosophy and social theory starts to emerge. As John Gray observed, Hayek's economic, political and social ideas do constitute a system ‘in virtue of their being informed and governed throughout by a distinctive philosophical outlook’ ( Gray , 1986 , pp. 2–3). The distinctive epistemological position that informs...

Scotland

Scotland   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and guidance, and to give advice or bring matters to the attention of others in the mental health law system. Adult Support and Protection Act (2007) Addresses concern over historical scandals in learning disability hospitals, and more recent concerns over abuse of older people that have prompted government action to safeguard adults who may be at risk of harm or in need of protection. The Act imposes a statutory duty on local authorities to make inquiries about a person’s wellbeing, property, or financial affairs, if they know or believe that the person is...

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...at the Foreign Office, working on the problems involved, generated real intellectual excitement, and a large input into the still more important debate on the same issues in Washington, where the process which eventually produced the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks ( SALT ) was beginning to get underway. Eventually it produced also the SALT and START treaties, and thus the beginnings of limitation and dismantling of nuclear stockpiles. Bull's methods of recruitment and consultation were sometimes innovative enough to startle the Foreign Office: the author was...

Financial Crisis of 2008

Financial Crisis of 2008   Reference library

Edward Ashbee

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,710 words

...sold, just nine years later, for $454,428 (Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission 2011 , p. 85). This gave individuals the confidence to buy larger or second properties and take on bigger mortgages. People also increasingly borrowed on the basis of the equity that they held in their properties. Against this background, housing market activity took an increasingly speculative form. “Flippers” secured easy profits by buying and quickly selling properties (particularly in the condominium and vacation-home markets). Others bought so as to rent. Some commentators were...

Vansittart, Nicholas

Vansittart, Nicholas (1766–1861)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,077 words

...had become a conflict between a half-dozen major groups including the Addingtonians. In 1809 , Spencer Perceval offered the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer to Vansittart in an effort to gain his party’s support, but Vansittart would not join the government without his chief. After Perceval’s assassination in 1812 , Vansittart came into Lord Liverpool’s government as Chancellor and Sidmouth as Home Secretary, where Sidmouth remained until 1822 and Vansittart until 1823 . Although refusing office under Perceval, Vansittart was friendly to...

Financial Crisis of 2008

Financial Crisis of 2008   Reference library

Edward Ashbee

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,729 words

...sold, just nine years later, for $454,428 (Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, 2011 : p. 85). This gave individuals the confidence to buy larger or second properties and take on bigger mortgages. People also increasingly borrowed on the basis of the equity that they held in their properties. Against this background, housing market activity took an increasingly speculative form. “Flippers” secured easy profits by buying and quickly selling properties (particularly in the condominium and vacation-home markets). Others bought so as to rent. Some commentators...

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