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Hofstadter's law

The adage that a task will always take longer than expected, even when Hofstadter's law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, ...

Hofstadter’s law

Hofstadter’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
85 words

...’s law The adage that a task will always take longer than expected, even when Hofstadter’s law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law makes the serious point that something unexpected is very likely to occur in the completion of any complex task, no matter how carefully one plans. It is therefore a good antidote to planning fallacy and optimism bias . The law is named after the US academic Douglas Hofstadter ( 1945–...

Hofstadter's law

Hofstadter's law  

The adage that a task will always take longer than expected, even when Hofstadter's law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law ...
planning fallacy

planning fallacy  

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to allow for ...
planning fallacy

planning fallacy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
159 words

...by suppliers, accidents, unexpected events of all kinds). The best antidote to planning fallacy is to research how long comparable projects have taken in the past (which can be accurately known), rather than making assumptions about the future (which cannot). See also Hofstadter’s law ; strategic misrepresentation...

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism   Reference library

Robert C. Bannister

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...anthropological concept of culture; advances in genetics that undermined eugenics even before Adolf Hitler 's programs disgraced the movement entirely; and the rise of fascism, widely viewed as the final logic of social Darwinism. Synthesizing these themes, historian Richard Hofstadter delivered the coup de grȃce in Social Darwinism in American Thought ( 1944 ). Biological social theory returned in the post–World War II decades with the successful description of the DNA molecule, containing the basic genetic code of all biological organisms, in 1953 ;...

Social Darwinism.

Social Darwinism.   Reference library

Robert C. Bannister

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
583 words

...anthropological concept of culture; advances in genetics that undermined eugenics even before Adolf Hitler's programs disgraced the movement entirely; and the rise of fascism, widely viewed as the final logic of social Darwinism. Synthesizing these themes, historian Richard Hofstadter delivered the coup de grâce in Social Darwinism in American Thought ( 1944 ). Biological social theory returned in the post– World War II decades with the successful description of the DNA molecule, containing the basic genetic code of all biological organisms, in 1953 ;...

sensations

sensations   Reference library

Richard L. Gregory

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,037 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it may well be that sensations are individually different, and surely (if they are conscious) bats must have sensations very different from any of ours when detecting objects by sound ranging. These issues are explored most imaginatively in philosophical papers collected by Hofstadter and Dennett ( 1981 ). Having said that we cannot know another person's sensations, it may seem impossible to measure sensations. There have, however, been many attempts to relate stimuli to sensation in quantitative ways, following the pioneer work of Fechner and Weber...

Faction

Faction   Reference library

Alan Gibson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Paper,” History of Political Thought 12 (1991): 263–304. Hamilton, Alexander , James Madison , and John Jay . The Federalist , ed. Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, CT, 1961). Hofstadter, Richard . The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969). Kramer, Larry . “Madison’s Audience,” Harvard Law Review 112 (1999): 611–79. Rahe, Paul . Republics: Ancient and Modern: Classical Republicanism and the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1992). Spencer, Mark G....

Third Parties

Third Parties   Reference library

Ronald B. Rapoport

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
3,220 words

...lengthier piece found in The Oxford Handbook of Parties and Interest Groups . [ See also Elections: Election Law ; Elections: Nominating Systems ; Elections: Presidential Elections ; Elections: Voting Systems ; Party System ; and Voting: Voting behavior . ] Bibliography Harmel, R., and J. D. Robertson. “ Formation and Success of New Parties: A Cross-National Analysis. ” International Political Science Review 6 (1985): 501–523. Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955 Key, V. O. Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups...

Dennett, Daniel Clement, III

Dennett, Daniel Clement, III (1942–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,168 words

... 13 (1968): 155–61. “ Intentional Systems, ” Journal of Philosophy 68 (1971): 87–106. “ Why the Law of Effect Will Not Go Away, ” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 5 (1975): 169–87. “True Believers: the Intentional Strategy and Why it Works,” in Scientific Explanation , ed. A. F. Heath (Oxford, 1981). “Three Kinds of Intentional Psychology,” in Reduction, Time and Reality , ed. Richard Healey (Cambridge, 1981). Ed. with Douglas Hofstadter , The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul (New York, 1981). “Beyond Belief,” in ...

Walling, William English

Walling, William English (1877–1936)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,056 words

...Dict Amer Bio, Comp Amer Thought, Dict Amer Bio, Who Was Who in Amer v1 Boylan, James . Revolutionary Lives: Anna Strunsky and William English Walling (Amherst, Mass., 1998). Egbert, Donal. Drew, and Stow Persons, eds. Socialism and American Life (Princeton, N.J., 1952). Hofstadter, Richard . The Age of Reform (New York, 1955). Kellogg, Charles Flint. NAACP: 1909–1920 (Baltimore, Md., 1967). Lasch, Christopher . The True and Only Heaven (New York, 1991). Walling, Anna Strunsky , ed. William English Walling: A Symposium (New York, 1938). Jean Van...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism   Reference library

Thomas J. Edward Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,163 words

...and convictions that had stood the test of time. [ See also Philosophy and Social Darwinism . ] Bibliography Croce, Paul Jerome . Science and Religion in the Era of William James: Eclipse of Certainty . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. Hofstadter, Richard . Social Darwinism in American Thought . Rev. ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955. Kuklick, Bruce . The Rise of American Philosophy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860–1930 . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977. Westbrook, Robert B. John Dewey and American...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

Kenneth L. Kusmer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It ( 1948 ), Richard Hofstadter argued that, whatever their differences on specifics, political leaders from the Founding Fathers to Franklin D. Roosevelt had “shared a belief in the rights of property” and competitive individualism. He added caustically, however, that on the whole the nation's democratic tradition had “been a democracy in cupidity,” not fraternity, that would be inadequate to deal with the problems of the postwar world. Hofstadter's scathing critique was atypical, but even those who applauded the...

CALHOUN, John Caldwell

CALHOUN, John Caldwell (1782–1850)   Reference library

Brian E. Butler

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Idea of ‘Concurrent Majority’ and the Constitutional Theory of Hegel ,” American Political Science Review 33 (1939): 585–90. Hill, C. William . “ Contrasting Themes in the Political Theories of Jefferson, Calhoun, and John Taylor of Caroline ,” Publius 6 (1976): 73–91. Hofstadter, Richard . The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It (New York, 1948). Johnson, Gerald W. America’s Silver Age: The Statecraft of Clay-Webster-Calhoun (New York, 1939). Kateb, George . “ The Majority Principle: Calhoun and His Antecedents ,” Political...

Heidegger, Martin

Heidegger, Martin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,545 words

...as The Origin of the Work of Art, by Albert Hofstadter , in Poetry, Language, Thought (New York, 1971), pp. 15–87. Heidegger, Martin Vorträge und Aufsätze . Pfullingen, 1954. See especially Bauen, Wohnen, Denken, translated by Albert Hofstadter as Building, Dwelling, Thinking, in Poetry, Language, Thought (New York, 1971), pp. 143–161; Das Ding, translated by Albert Hofstadter as The Thing in Poetry, Language, Thought, pp. 163–186; …dichterisch wohnet der Mensch. … translated by Albert Hofstadter as “… Poetically Man Dwells …, in Poetry,...

Conservatism

Conservatism   Reference library

Christopher Shannon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...that saw in moral constraints the foundation of cultural stability. The Emergence of Conservatism. As conservatives drew these battle lines, liberals refused to acknowledge the existence of an opponent. The leading liberal intellectuals of the day, men like Richard Hofstadter , Daniel Boorstin , Lionel Trilling , and Daniel Bell , insisted that American cultural and intellectual life had always been liberal and that self-styled conservatives were really no more than “pseudo-conservatives,” liberals masquerading as conservatives. Before...

Violence Against African Americans

Violence Against African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sex, … in the most brutal manner. … It seemed as if Satan was loose, and his children were free to do whatever he might direct without fear of the city authority.” The New York City draft riot of July 1863 , which came on the heels of the Battle of Gettysburg, was, as Richard Hofstadter and Michael Wallace note, “in large measure a race riot.” Triggered by the inequitable features of the Conscription Act, which permitted persons to escape the draft by paying three hundred dollars, a mob of thousands ran amok in the city, forcing shops and factories to close...

Populist Era

Populist Era   Reference library

Wayne Flynt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,243 words

...commercial agriculture, and the rise of urban-immigrant America spurred the agrarian protest spirit known as Populism. Some historians have seen Populism as a reactionary phenomenon, a last stand for agrarian values before the juggernaut of modernization. Richard Hofstadter , in his influential Age of Reform ( 1955 ), viewed the Populists as deluded reactionaries who scapegoated Jewish bankers and big-city immigrants, oversimplified complicated economic issues, and romanticized an idealized past of self-sufficient yeomanry. Certainly Populism...

Augustine

Augustine (354)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,188 words

... Selections from De Ordine (386). In Philosophies of Art and Beauty: Selected Readings in Aesthetics from Plato to Heidegger , edited by Albert Hofstadter and Richard Kuhns , translated by Robert P. Russell , pp. 173–185. Chicago, 1976. Augustine Selections from De Musica (387). In Philosophies of Art and Beauty: Selected Readings in Aesthetics from Plato to Heidegger , edited by Albert Hofstadter and Richard Kuhns , translated by W. F. Jackson Knight , pp. 185–202. Chicago, 1976. Augustine De Diversis Questionibus , 83 (On 83 Questions,...

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: An Overview

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: An Overview   Reference library

David C. Rapoport

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,428 words

... International extradition law and world public order . Amsterdam: Luitingh-Sijthoff. Bush , George W. (2001). Available at https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/bushrecord Clausewitz, C. (1991) On war . In A. Rapoport (Ed.). Dorset Press. Eppright, C. (1997). Counterterrorism and conventional military force: The relationship between political effect and utility. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism , 20 (4), 333–344. Hofstadter, R. (1970). Reflections on violence in the United States. In R. Hofstadter & M. Wallace (Eds.), ...

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