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History of the Young Men

In a hand-sewn booklet of eighteen pages (dated 7 May 1831; MS in BL), Captain John Bud (Branwell Brontë), in six chapters, details the establishment of the Glass Town Federation ...

‘History of the Young Men, The’

‘History of the Young Men, The’   Reference library

Victor Neufeldt

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
362 words

...‘History of the Young Men, The’ . In a hand-sewn booklet of eighteen pages (dated 7 May 1831 ; MS in BL), Captain John Bud (Branwell Brontë), in six chapters, details the establishment of the Glass Town Federation ( see glass town and angrian saga ) in the Ashantee territory of West Africa, and includes a map of the Federation. In the introduction Branwell describes how a set of toy soldiers became the Twelves who set sail for Africa . Among the crew were Arthur Wellesley (spelt Wellesly by Branwell; see wellington, duke of ); Sir W. E. Parry , ...

History of the Young Men

History of the Young Men  

In a hand-sewn booklet of eighteen pages (dated 7 May 1831; MS in BL), Captain John Bud (Branwell Brontë), in six chapters, details the establishment of the Glass Town Federation ...
Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...explain phases of national growth, and trace chains of cause and effect (Mark Reid, ‘Our Young Historians’, Macmillans Magazine , 67 ( 1892–3 ). In the opinion of another writer ( William Whellan , History and Topography of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland ) this meant that local history ceased ‘to possess any general interest’ since ‘the multiplicity of separate independencies were absorbed in the centralisation of power’. In fact, this shift in central objectives did not lead to the death of local history, but history generally did undergo...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of books and articles during the last four decades of the 19th century. Atkinson had immense intellectual curiosity. Coming as a young parson from the south of England to one of the wildest parts of the country, he became interested not only in documentary and topographical research, and in natural history and archaeology, but in the lives of his parishioners: their homes, their speech , their customs, beliefs, and superstitions. His knowledge of Scandinavian and other languages convinced him that ‘to all practical intents and purposes, the people of...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by masculinist *natural philosophy [34] . The changing role of men within the family has recently become a subject of extensive historical interest as scholars have begun to look at the eighteenth-century emphasis on the importance of the home as the site of education and civic virtue. It is by now almost an axiom within the history of the family that the eighteenth century brought a decline in patriarchal authority, as an older, authoritarian family gave way to a closer-knit unit enshrining the value of affective individualism. John *Locke 's psychological...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...over the triumph of moneyed interests and attempts to uphold an eighteenth-century classical ideal of the landed patriotic citizen. The ‘degeneracy’ linked to the rise of the moneyed interest and decline of the citizen soldier was expressed in the gender-specific term ‘effeminacy’. Those who warned Englishmen that effeminacy was the inevitable effect of luxury had the most powerful of all precedents in mind: the history of the degeneracy of Rome, from virtuous republic to luxurious empire. Tension between the high evaluation of refinement in men and the wish...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by a fall in the proportion of the population which remained permanently celibate. See Roger Schofield, ‘English Marriage Patterns Revisited’, Journal of Family History , 10 ( 1985 ), which corrects earlier accounts. Higher mortality was the most important underlying cause of the halt in population growth. Smallpox , in particular, was a terrible scourge of the young. London grew prodigiously; its high death rates mopped up many of the young immigrants who settled in its suburbs . Yet the metropolis also had a liberating influence. The London marriage...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...young Lydia , just what kind of knowledge is required to turn the study of history from an affair of mere ‘adventure’, as it must first appear to a young girl in her innocence, into something more serious and substantial. By spelling out the legacy of historiography for a young woman, Barbauld makes explicit some of the tacit assumptions that underlie this predominantly male enterprise. Barbauld identifies ‘geography and chronology’ as the ‘two eyes of history’, and insists that by their means one should be able to envision what she calls ‘the state of the...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the form relied fundamentally on the revaluation of the modes of history which was such a strong impetus throughout the Romantic period. Whether it be traced in Catherine Morland 's complaint in Austen 's Northanger Abbey that history is all about men or in Jane *Porter 's innovative approach to fictional treatments of historical figures (such as William Wallace in The Scottish Chiefs , 1810 ), the revaluation had lasting consequences for the development of the novel. Interest in the relationship between the individual and the social group...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have also pointed the way for feminist studies of Joan’s subversion of traditional gender and social hierarchies. These critics have also noted the resemblance between Joan’s various symbolic personae and public roles and those played by Elizabeth I. Stage history: Henslowe’s diary entry indicates 1 Henry VI was written for and performed by Lord Strange’s Men at the Rose theatre, with London’s leading actor, Edward Alleyn , probably taking the part of Talbot. Henry was probably played by a boy actor. No further records of performance exist until a...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Change in the Midlands, c. 1700–1840 (2005) , and David Hey , A History of Yorkshire (2005) and Derbyshire: A History (2008). The ways in which altered contexts can illuminate the study of a regional economy are explored in J. D. Marshall and J. K. Walton , The Lake Counties from 1830 to the Mid‐Twentieth Century: A Study in Regional Change ( 1981 ). For the industrial history of a Victorian and 20th‐century city, see J. C. Binfield et al. (eds), The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993 (1993). Since the 1960s much of the scholarly...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...takes sanctuary with her young son the Duke of York, accompanied by the Duchess of York. 3.1 Prince Edward is welcomed to London by the lords and Mayor but misses his absent mother and brother. Against his better judgement, the Cardinal is persuaded to fetch the Duke of York out of sanctuary. The young princes reluctantly submit to Gloucester’s advice to lodge temporarily in the Tower. Catesby is sent to find out Hastings’s opinion about the idea of Gloucester becoming king. Gloucester promises Buckingham the earldom of Hereford for his support after he...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the proper public for that art. Swarming around the history paintings and the grand portrait of a Prince are pictures of beggars, flowers, waterfalls, witches, landscapes, birds, dogs, and horses. Modestly sized portraits of eminently unheroic people—women in fancy hats, humble prelates, and country gentry—jostle at the edges of Opie's and Northcote's history paintings, and hover beneath Reynolds's huge canvas. Furthermore, the crowd of visitors who attend the exhibition is made up not of a select group of élite males, but of a more motley crew of men and...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was the basis of more radical claims for political representation. Both William *Cobbett and more conservative writers shared a view of cottage cosiness, whether to emphasize the dignity of labour, the economics of poor relief, or the *reformation of manners . Many working-class men involved in radical politics, and supported by female dependents, adapted elements of this approach to advance their own independent claims for political rights. Thus by the 1820s, understandings of poverty formulated by the non-poor, and co-opted in distinctive ways by the poor...

Richard Duke of York

Richard Duke of York   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,705 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...dynastic factionalism, and the vision of an amoral universe of power-seeking individuals associated with the new philosophy of Niccolò Machiavelli that explicitly inspires Gloucester. Feminist critics have also learnt from stage performances, investigating the multiple social dimensions in Margaret’s role as militant mother upholding her son’s rights against a disordered patriarchy. Stage history: Richard Duke of York was probably first written for and performed by Lord Strange’s Men, and then certainly staged by Pembroke’s Men after they came into...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... of 1802 began with the famous case of a watch as an indubitable example of mechanical design, but all the illustrations in the book showed design as the benevolent adaptation of anatomical structures to bodily functions, and the way this ensured the happiness of animals and humans. Here again, natural philosophy seemed to lose ground to natural history. Since men of science in early-nineteenth-century Britain did not enjoy the possibility of definite scientific careers (such as those in France), these moral and religious lessons allowed them to affirm the...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...group of sonnets attempts instead to persuade a beautiful young man to marry on the same grounds, and when the sonnets do turn their attentions to a female addressee they do so with a contemptuous bitterness unequalled by any previous anti-Petrarchan writer. Although Richard Barnfield ’s Cynthia ( 1595 ) includes 20 homoerotic sonnets addressed to a boy, no other English sonnet collection of its time is as preoccupied as Shakespeare’s with an intense relationship between two men. Synopsis: Attempts to read the Sonnets as a single consecutive narrative are...

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,732 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...continue also to be read in the light of modern experiences of class conflict and political power struggles. Stage history: The Contention was probably written for and performed by Lord Strange’s Men, a large company able to accommodate the play’s numerous roles. Q1’s title page does not identify an acting company, but Richard Duke of York ’s does: Pembroke’s Men, who must also have performed The Contention after they came into being in May 1591 . There is no further evidence of performance until John Crowne ’s The Misery of Civil-War ( 1680 , staged ...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with the listing of three different acting companies on the title page of the 1594 quarto , suggest composition around 1590–1 . Both internal and external evidence in favour of this early date is, however, easily confuted. The verbal parallels might derive from another play called Titus and Vespacia , which Henslowe recorded as being performed at the Rose on 11 April 1592 . Besides, the listing of the three acting companies on the title page of the 1594 quarto might not be meant to be interpreted as a chronology of the play’s stage history, as...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of aristocratic patrilineal conventions was intentionally temporary. Ann Walker's property was entailed back to Lister's family after her death in order to preserve the family name. Thus in a period of intense pressure to conform to new ideals of domestic orthodoxy, a young, lower-gentry practising lesbian was able to affiliate her unorthodox sexual practice and lifestyle with a dynastic family identity. Armstrong, N. , Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel , Oxford, 1987; Binhammer, K. , ‘ The Sex Panic of the 1790s ’, Journal of...

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