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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz

(1821–94) German physiologist and physicist. In 1850 he measured the speed of a nerve impulse and in 1851 invented the ophthalmoscope. Helmholtz discovered the conservation of ...

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–94)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
45 words

..., Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von ( 1821–94 ) German anatomist , physicist , and physiologist . He made contributions in acoustics and optics , expanding Thomas Young 's three-colour theory of vision. His experiments on the speed of nerve impulses led him to formulate a principle of conservation of...

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
52 words

...Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von ( 1821–94 ) German physiologist , physicist , and mathematician . In 1850 he measured the speed of a nerve impulse and in 1851 invented the ophthalmoscope. In physics, he discovered the conservation of energy ( 1847 ), introduced the concept of free energy , and invented vortex dynamics ....

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
77 words

..., Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von ( 1821–94 ) German physiologist and physicist . In 1850 he measured the speed of a nerve impulse and in 1851 invented the ophthalmoscope. Helmholtz discovered the conservation of energy ( 1847 ), giving many examples of its application, and also introduced the concept of free energy . He also made important contributions to electrochemistry ( see electrical double layer ) and proposed the existence of the ‘atom of electricity’, i.e. the...

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
340 words

..., Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–1894) German physiologist and theoretical physicist Born in Potsdam, Germany, Helmholtz studied medicine at the Friedrich Wilhelm Institute in Berlin and obtained his MD in 1842 . He returned to Potsdam to become an army surgeon, but returned to civilian life in 1848 and was appointed assistant at the Anatomical Museum in Berlin. He then held a succession of chairs at Königsberg ( 1849–55 ), Bonn ( 1855–58 ), Heidelberg ( 1858–71 ), and Berlin ( 1871–77 ) and later became director of the Physico-Technical...

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von   Reference library

Richard L. Gregory

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,475 words

..., Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von ( 1821–94 ). German physiologist and physicist , born at Potsdam. He was the son of Ferdinand Helmholtz , a teacher of philology and philosophy in the gymnasium. His mother's maiden name was Penne ; she was descended from the Quaker founder of Philadelphia, William Penn . Hermann Helmholtz became the founder of the science of perceptual physiology. He carried out a vast number of observational experiments, often with himself as observer, as well as physiological experiments for explanations. He also formulated...

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821–94)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
965 words

...Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz 1821 – 94 German physicist and physiologist The relationships of free and latent heat set forth in the language of the materialistic theory remain the same if in place of the quantity of matter we put the constant quantity of motion in accordance with the laws of mechanics. The only difference enters where it concerns the generations of heat through other motive forces and where it concerns the equivalent of heat that can be produced by a particular quantity of a mechanical or electrical force. ‘Wärme,...

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–94)   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von ( 1821–94 ) German physiologist and theoretical physicist . Gibbs–Helmholtz equation (en dash) Helmholtz coils * Helmholtz function Helmholtz...

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1821–94)German physiologist and physicist. In 1850 he measured the speed of a nerve impulse and in 1851 invented the ophthalmoscope. Helmholtz discovered the conservation of energy (1847), giving ...
Young-Helmholtz theory

Young-Helmholtz theory  

Another name for the trichromatic theory of colour vision. [Named after the English physician, physicist, and Egyptologist Thomas Young (1773–1829) who proposed it in 1802, and the German ...
Helmholtz illusion

Helmholtz illusion  

An irradiation illusion consisting of a light square on a dark background and a dark square on a light background, the two squares being equal in size but the light one appearing larger than the dark ...
Helmholtz–Kelvin contraction

Helmholtz–Kelvin contraction  

The contraction of a star under gravity, the potential energy thus lost being converted into heat and radiated away. The Helmholtz–Kelvin contraction time-scale is defined as the time it would take ...
David Courtenay Marr

David Courtenay Marr  

(1945–80).British psychologist, born at Woodford in Essex. In his short life, David Marr made a contribution to the psychology of vision that could be regarded as more important than ...
likelihood principle

likelihood principle  

A hypothesis first proposed in 1866 by the German physiologist, physicist, and mathematician Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821–94) that a perception is inferred unconsciously to correspond ...
Gibbs-Helmholtz equation

Gibbs-Helmholtz equation  

An equation used in thermodynamics to show the temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. It has the form:(∂G/∂T)p = (G − H)/T, where G is the Gibbs free energy, H is the enthalpy, T is the ...
trichromatic theory

trichromatic theory  

A theory of colour vision specifically intended to take account of trichromacy, according to which at each point on the retina of the eye there are three light-sensitive structures responsive to red, ...
evolution of the ear

evolution of the ear  

There are several different designs of vertebrate ears. The evolution of hearing organs has progressed along at least three parallel evolutionary pathways, with convergent functional results. Three ...
institute

institute  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The university-based institute was the instrument and symbol of Germany's dominance of natural science at the end of the nineteenth century. In its spatial isolation from the rest of its ...
naturalistic photography

naturalistic photography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Was a movement introduced by P. H. Emerson, primarily through his book, Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art (1889), a polemic against conventionalism in art and photography. Emerson ...
Georg Simon Ohm

Georg Simon Ohm  

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Overview Page
(1787–1854) German physicist,who taught in Cologne, Berlin, Nuremberg, and finally (1849) Munich. He is best known for formulating Ohm's law in 1827. The unit of electrical resistance is named after ...
knowledge by acquaintance, and knowledge by description

knowledge by acquaintance, and knowledge by description  

This distinction was made by Bertrand Russell (see especially Russell 1914: 151). Knowledge by acquaintance is ‘what we derive from sense’, which does not imply ‘even the smallest “knowledge about” ’ ...

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