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Henle-Koch postulates

Syn: Koch's postulates. First formulated by the German pathologist Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle (1809–1885) and adapted and modified by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843–1910), ...

Henle–Koch postulates

Henle–Koch postulates   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...HenleKoch postulates ( Koch's postulates ) First formulated by the German pathologist Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle ( 1809–85 ) and adapted and modified by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch ( 1843–1910 ), these are four criteria that usually suffice to confirm the causal relationship of a pathogenic organism to a specific infectious disease. The postulates are: 1. The agent must be demonstrable in every case of the disease; 2. The agent is not present in other diseases; 3. After isolation in culture, the agent must be able to produce the disease...

Henle–Koch Postulates

Henle–Koch Postulates   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...HenleKoch Postulates A set of Causal Criteria for making judgments about microorganisms as causes of infectious diseases. They were first formulated by F. G. Jacob Henle and adapted by Robert Koch in 1877 and 1882. Koch stated that these postulates should be met before a causal relationship can be accepted between a particular bacterial parasite or disease agent and the disease in question: 1 . The agent must be shown to be present in every case of the disease by isolation in pure culture. 2 . The agent must not be found in cases of other disease...

Henle-Koch postulates

Henle-Koch postulates  

Syn: Koch's postulates. First formulated by the German pathologist Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle (1809–1885) and adapted and modified by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843–1910), these are ...
Koch's postulates

Koch's postulates  

Named for the German bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843–1910), these criteria confirming that an agent such as a bacterium causes a disease should be attributed in part to Koch's contemporary Friedrich ...
Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle

Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle  

(1809–1885)A German pioneer histologist and pathologist, who made many original observations, notably about the microstructure of kidneys. He was at the interface of the miasma theory and the germ ...
illness theories

illness theories  

Usually called theories of illness, these are the concepts people use to explain what they perceive to be wrong with their health. Ancient theories include the influence of evil spirits, witchcraft, ...
Koch's postulates

Koch's postulates   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Koch's postulates Named for the German bacteriologist Robert Koch ( 1843–1910 ), these criteria confirming that an agent such as a bacterium causes a disease should be attributed in part to Koch's contemporary Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle ( 1809–85 ). Purists call them the HenleKoch postulates . The postulates are: The organism must be present in every case and must be isolated, cultured, and identified; it must produce the disease when a pure culture is given to a susceptible animal; and the organism must be recoverable from the animal. ...

Passage

Passage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Passage The transfer of microorganisms from human to animal host(s) either directly or via laboratory culture; in the laboratory, this procedure is used to check for conformity with the henle-koch postulates . ...

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...afflicting an estimated 0.17% of the world’s population (12 million prevalent cases). Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . 780 It continues to present an epidemiological challenge. 20 , 22 , 56 , 69 , 188 , 217 , 218 , 219 , 781 , 782 See also henle-koch postulates . ...

Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jacob

Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jacob (1809–85)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jacob ( 1809–85 ) A German pioneer histologist and pathologist , who made many original observations, notably about the microstructure of kidneys. He was at the interface of the miasma theory and the germ theory of disease causation and in Von den Miasmen und Kontagien ( On Miasmata and Contagion , 1840 ), he enunciated three of the four postulates later adopted by Robert Koch and often inappropriately called Koch's postulates. ...

Causal Criteria

Causal Criteria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...and to make causal inferences. 1 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 25 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 58 , 85 , 101 , 206 , 207 , 208 Examples close to epidemiological and clinical research include John Stuart Mill’s Canons , the “rules” of David Hume, evans’s postulates, henle-koch postulates , or Hill’s Considerations For Causation . ...

Multiple Cause Theory

Multiple Cause Theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Multiple Cause Theory A theory coherent with Multiple Causation . By contrast, henle-koch postulates do not admit multiple causes of a single disorder, nor do they contemplate causal relations not susceptible to experimentation. Early in the twentieth century, German scientists raised questions about the limitation of such postulates and paved the way for new ideas on multifactorial causality. 618 Consensus about Multiple Causation coalesced a half-century later, when chronic noninfectious disease had become a leading public health concern. 163...

causality

causality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...rely on logical assembly and assessment of all pertinent information, perhaps supported by in vitro laboratory studies and other sources of evidence. For instance, when searching for the causal pathogen responsible for a communicable disease, investigators may use the HenleKoch postulates , although these do not necessarily help. ...

Koch, (Heinrich Hermann) Robert

Koch, (Heinrich Hermann) Robert   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
871 words

..., (Heinrich Hermann) Robert (1843–1910) German bacteriologist Born the son of a mining official in Klausthal, Germany, Koch studied medicine at the University of Göttingen where he was a pupil of Jacob Henle . After graduating in 1866 and serving in the Franco–Prussian War, Koch was appointed district medical officer in Wollstein. Here, working alone with only the most modest of resources, Koch began the research that was to make him, with Pasteur , one of the two founders of the new science of bacteriology. Koch saw more clearly than anyone before...

illness theories

illness theories   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...persisted into the mid-19th century. The miasma theory was supported by the observed association of malaria with swamps. The germ theory has ancient origins but did not become dominant until the discovery of microscopic organisms. It is abundantly confirmed when the HenleKoch postulates are fulfilled. Scientific advances since the late 19th century have identified many biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal causes of disease. The theories of Sigmund Freud and others seek to explain mental, emotional, and personality disorders and some physiological...

Evans’S Postulates

Evans’S Postulates   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Evans’S Postulates Expanding biomedical knowledge led to revision of the henle-koch postulates . 42 Alfred Evans ( 1917-1996 ) 433 developed those that follow: 1 . Prevalence of the disease should be significantly higher in those exposed to the hypothesized cause than in controls not so exposed. 2 . Exposure to the hypothesized cause should be more frequent among those with the disease than in controls without the disease—when all other Risk factors are held constant. 3 . Incidence of the disease should be significantly higher in those exposed...

Hill’s Considerations For Causation

Hill’s Considerations For Causation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... plausibility unless the latter is limited to biology and analogy to upper (clinical, epidemiological) levels. See also association ; causal criteria ; causality ; causation of disease, factors in ; coherence ; diseases of complex etiology ; evans’s postulates ; henle-koch postulates ; mill’s canons ; necessary cause ; probability of causation . ...

germ

germ   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
775 words

...in a continual process of modification. Consensus was reached only around the turn of the century. The contribution of Koch and his associates to the establishment of the germ theory extended beyond the identification of organisms. Koch drew up the program known as “Koch's postulates,” which, through several subsequent revisions, continues in use as the basic tool for confirmation of an association between specific microbes and diseases. Koch and his colleagues made important contributions to the identification of bacteria by developing staining methods based...

Germ Theory of Disease

Germ Theory of Disease   Reference library

Nancy Tomes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the germ theory. But starting in the 1870s, young researchers began to go to Germany, France, and England to be trained in the new methods and then returned to teach them in the United States. Koch’s methods, learned directly from him or by reading accounts of his work, were especially influential. The essence of the new bacteriology was reflected in Koch’s postulates, which laid out a series of steps necessary to prove a specific micro-organism was responsible for a specific disease: first, researchers had to find the micro-organism in a sick animal but not a...

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