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Hebrew Palaeography Project

Founded in 1965 by Malachi Beit-Arié and Colette Sirat to collect quantitative data on dated medieval Hebrew MSS. Its primary products are three volumes of Manuscrits médiévaux en ...

Hebrew Palaeography Project

Hebrew Palaeography Project   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
78 words

... Palaeography Project Founded in 1965 by Malachi Beit-Arié and Colette Sirat to collect quantitative data on *dated medieval Hebrew MSS . Its primary products are three volumes of Manuscrits médiévaux en caractères hébraïques portant des indications de date jusq’à 1540 , five volumes of Monumenta Palaeographica Medii Aevi: Series Hebraica , and a number of important palaeographical atlases. At the heart of the Project is its SFAR-DATA database with *codicological data from some 5,500 MSS. Emile G. L....

Hebrew Palaeography Project

Hebrew Palaeography Project  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Founded in 1965 by Malachi Beit-Arié and Colette Sirat to collect quantitative data on dated medieval Hebrew MSS. Its primary products are three volumes of Manuscrits médiévaux en caractères ...
8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the promising future of the Hebrew (for which now read Israeli) book. Bibliography S. J. Agnon , Das Schaß meines Großvaters (1925) M. Beit-Arié , Hebrew Manuscripts of East and West (1993) — The Makings of the Medieval Hebrew Book (1993) — Unveiled Faces of Medieval Hebrew Books (2003) M. Glatzer , ‘The Aleppo-Codex: Codicological and Paleographical Aspects’, Sefunot , 4.19 (1988), 167–276 (in Hebrew) Z. Gries , The Book in the Jewish World, 1700–1900 (2007) M. W. Grunberger , ‘Publishing and the Rise of Modern Hebrew Literature’, in A Sign and a...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...knowledge to amend the MSS for the printer. Francesco Robortello edited Longinus ( 1552 ) and wrote the first developed study of the methodology of textual criticism, De Arte Critica sive Ratione Corrigendi Antiquorum Libros Disputatio ( 1557 ), which insisted on *palaeography , usage, and sense as criteria for *emendation . Major textual scholars in France and The Netherlands—notably Lucretius’ editor *Lambin ; Manilius’ editor J. J. *Scaliger ; Tacitus’ editor *Lipsius ; *Vossius ; and Daniel *Heinsius —made significant contributions both to...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., Les Manuscrits à peintures en France, 1440–1520 (1993) Bischoff M. Bollati , ed., Dizionario biografico dei miniatori italiani: secoli IX–XVI (2004) L. E. Boyle , Medieval Latin Palaeography (1984) R. Clemens and T. Graham , Introduction to Manuscript Studies (2007) C. de Hamel , A History of Illuminated Manuscripts , 2e (1994) A. Derolez , The Palaeography of Gothic Manuscript Books (2003) N. R. Ker , English Manuscripts in the Century after the Norman Conquest (1960) T. Kren and S. McKendrick , eds., Illuminating the Renaissance: The...

Rule of the Community

Rule of the Community   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,274 words

...by Dominique Barthélemy and J. T. Milik (1955, pp. 107–130). They are the Rule of the Congregation (1QSa) and the Book of Blessings (1QSb). All these texts are now available in volume 1 of the Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project edited by J. H. Charlesworth . On paleographic grounds, Nahman Avigad ( 1958 , p. 71) and Frank M. Cross ( 1961 , p. 258, n. 116) assign 1QS to the first quarter of the first century bce . Neither it nor any of the extant copies of the Rule is the original. Hence, the composition of the Rule ...

Aharoni, Yohanan

Aharoni, Yohanan (1919–1976)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
626 words

...areas, in addition to recording sections, for a better understanding of a site. This strategy was a response to the Wheeler-Ken-yon method. [ See the biographies of Kenyon and Wheeler ]. Aharoni published the Arad inscriptions, an important contribution to the history and paleography of late Iron Age Judah. Noteworthy also is his participation in the exploration of the caves in the Judean Desert and of Masada, his work at Hazor, and his study of Iron Age Megiddo. In 1968 Aharoni founded the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University. He gathered...

Writing and Writing Systems

Writing and Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,745 words

...of the Arabic script; Jacqueline Pirenne's 1963 study is the fullest of the Syriac; Alexander Klugkist ( 1986 ) covers Mandaic; and Solomon A. Birnbaum ( 1954–1971 ) deals with Hebrew to the twentieth century ce . There are so few epigraphic monuments (Semitology, unlike classical studies, does not distinguish epigraphy, studying incised texts, from paleography, studying inked texts) from the first half of the first millennium bce , and a little earlier, that every scholar can be expected to be familiar with the full range. As new texts are...

Text Criticism

Text Criticism   Reference library

James R. Royse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
24,734 words
Illustration(s):
4

...its Qumran representatives “Early Jewish”). A dozen or so of the Qumran biblical scrolls, however, are written in paleo-Hebrew script. These seem to date to the end of the second century b.c.e. , a time when the Hasmonean rulers were using paleo-Hebrew legends on their coins. Paleographical analysis indicates that the Samaritan script began to diverge from the paleo-Hebrew parent script at about this same time. Moreover, this paleographic argument is corroborated by the orthography of the Samaritan manuscripts, which is typically very full ( plene )—that is,...

papyrology, Greek

papyrology, Greek   Reference library

Herwig Maehler

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,900 words

...Graeco-Roman world. The object of papyrology is to study texts written on papyrus (and on ostraca, wooden tablets, etc. in so far as they come from the same find-spots) in Egyptian (hieroglyphs, demotic, Coptic), Hebrew, Aramaic , Greek, Latin, Pahlavi, and Arabic. Greek papyrology also deals with Greek texts written on parchment ( see palaeography , Introduction ). The vast majority of Greek papyri have been found in Egypt, preserved in the dry sand; with the exception of some carbonized papyri from Bubastis and Thmouis, no papyri have survived in the...

Scrolls Research

Scrolls Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the collaboration of S. J. Pfann ; a second edition appeared in 1995 ). This project, of high quality, is the most complete set of photographs (more than 5000 in number) from all the Judean Desert sites ever issued and has recently been supplemented with the Allegro collection of 1600 images ( The Allegro Qumran Collection [edited by G. J. Brooke with the collaboration of H. K. Bond ; Leiden, 1996 ]) and a CD-ROM edition. Today, anyone who can read Second Temple Hebrew and Aramaic texts in their original scripts can study the entire corpus. This...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman and Sidnie White Crawford

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,173 words

...Tov of the Hebrew University was appointed the editor-in-chief, and brought the publication project to a close in 2008. After the opening of the photographic archives of the scrolls in the 1990s to the general scholarly community, the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls became a fast-growing academic field, important for the study of the Old Testament, Second Temple Judaism, and early Christianity. The importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for the study of the development of the biblical text is underlined by the fact that the oldest known Hebrew biblical...

Textual Criticism

Textual Criticism   Reference library

Julio Trebolle Barrera, Pablo Torijano Morales, Kelley Coblentz Bautch, and N. Clayton Croy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,901 words

...New Approaches to Hebrew Bible Textual Criticism . Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2010. McCarter, P. Kyle . Textual Criticism: Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986. Orion Center : http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/ Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project . 5 vols. New York: United Bible Societies, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980. Schenker, Adrian . The Earliest Text of the Hebrew Bible. The Relationship between the Masoretic Text and the Hebrew Base of the Septuagint...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...beginning of the first century ce or to the second half of the last century bce . Paleography permits further precision in dating the Masada texts. With the exception of one small piece of papyrus inscribed in Paleo-Hebrew characters, thirteen of the remaining fragments are penned in varying forms of the Hebrew square script of the Herodian period and the Ben Sira scroll is written in a late Hasmonean hand. They help us to trace diverse stages in the development of Hebrew script at the height of the Second Temple period ( Cross , 1961 ). On the strength of...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
9,563 words

...on historical issues. Qimron, Elisha. The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls . Atlanta, 1986. The only grammar devoted exclusively to the Hebrew writings among the scrolls. Generally reliable, but questionable at points on phonology and does not include the Copper Scroll or, of course, many of the most recently available texts. Qimron, Elisha , and John Strugnell . Qumran Cave 4 , vol. 5, Miqṣat Ma῾aśe ha-Torah . Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, vol. 10. Oxford, 1994. Reed, Stephen . Dead Sea Scroll Inventory Project: List of Documents, Photographs, and...

Ḥever, Naḥal

Ḥever, Naḥal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of the documents of the Naḥal Ṣe᾽elim collection originated in the eastern region of Transjordan. The documents under discussion mention the village Aristoboulias and the capital of the toparchy Zif—both in the southern region of Mount Hebron. The Aramaic document is dated by paleographic analysis to the Herodian period, and it documents the transaction of Yehudah ben Shimon selling an orchard in Yakim to a man by the name of Yehudah. [See Deeds of Sale .] The Greek document is a canceled marriage document from the year 130 ce , of a bride from...

Pesharim

Pesharim   Reference library

James Hamilton Charlesworth and Henry W. Morisada Rietz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,494 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the Pharisees. Portions of the book of Isaiah are commented on in six different pesharim (3Q4, 4Q161–4Q165); the manuscripts represent over one hundred years of datable handwriting. Isaiah Pesher 3 (4Q163=4QpIsa c ) consists of sixty-one poorly preserved fragments. Paleographically, this manuscript dates to circa 100 b.c.e. , making it the oldest extant pesher. Portions of Isaiah chapters 8–10 , 14 , 19 , 29–31 are quoted and interpreted in this document. This composition also refers to Jeremiah (frg. 1 line 4) and Zechariah (frgs. 8–10 line...

Samaria

Samaria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,939 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Report of the Work of the Joint Expedition In 1931–1933 and of the Work of the British Expedition In 1935, no. 1. London, 1942. Kaufman, Ivan T. “ The Samaria Ostraca: An Early Witness to Hebrew Writing. ” Biblical Archaeologist 45.4 (1982): 229–239. Synopsis of the author's 1966 dissertation, “The Samaria Ostraca: A Study in Ancient Hebrew Palaeography,” summarizing the evidence available from archaeology and from the study of early scripts and hieratic numerals. Rainey, Anson F. “Toward a Precise Date for the Samaria Ostraca.” Bulletin of the...

Samaria/Sebaste

Samaria/Sebaste   Reference library

Daniel M. Master

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,708 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to see if they can provide evidence for the absolute date in which the receipts were written. All of the dates listed on the ostraca are either the ninth year, tenth year, or fifteenth year. While most agreed to an early eighth-century b.c.e. date for the ostraca based on paleographic considerations, Anson Rainey argued even more specifically that the year 9/10 and year 15 ostraca can be dated to 784/83 b.c.e. based on a coregency of Jeroboam II (accession in 798 b.c.e. ) with Jehoash (accession in 793 b.c.e. ). Others, such as F. M. Cross, date the...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Alex P. Jassen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,945 words

...James H. , ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations: Damascus Document II, Some Works of the Torah, and Related Documents . Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project 3. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck; Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2006. Charlesworth, James H. , ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations: Temple Scroll and Related Documents . Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project 7. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck;...

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