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Hafez al- Assad

(b. 6 Oct. 1930, d. 16 Oct. 2000). President of Syria 1971–2000 Early career Born in Qardaha into the Alawi sect, he became an officer in the airforce. He ...

Assad, Hafez al-

Assad, Hafez al- (1930–2000)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
120 words

...Assad, Hafez al- ( 1930–2000 ) President of Syria between 1971 and 2000 . A member of the Ba'ath Party , Hafez al-Assad took part in the 1963 coup that brought the party to power and became Defence Minister in 1966 . Assad seized power in November 1970 and became President of Syria in February 1971 . Assad placed members of his Alawite sect in key positions and crushed an Islamist uprising in Hama in 1982 as he built up a one-party state centred on a cult of personality. Syria intervened in the Lebanese civil war in 1976 and remained the...

Assad, Hafez al-

Assad, Hafez al- (1930–2000)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
119 words

..., Hafez al- ( 1930–2000 ) Syrian statesman , president ( 1970–2000 ). Assad served as minister of defence ( 1965–70 ), before seizing power in a military coup. He was elected president in 1971 . Assad took a hardline stance against Israel and Syrian troops participated in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War . He was accused of harbouring terrorists. In 1976 Syrian troops were deployed in the Lebanese civil war. In 1987 the Syrian army moved into Beirut to restore order. In the mid-1990s, Assad's stance towards Israel softened and he played a vital role...

al-Assad, Hafez

al-Assad, Hafez (6 Oct. 1930)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
397 words

...al-Assad, Hafez (b. Qardaha, Syria , 6 Oct. 1930 ; d. Damascus , 10 Jun. 2000 ) President of Syria 1971–2000 A member of the minority Alawi sect, Assad joined the Ba'ath party at 16. After the party won power in 1963 , he became Air Force Commander in 1965 and Defence Minister in 1966 . The power struggle within the party between Dr Atassi's Marxist-orientated faction and Assad's nationalist faction was ended by the military coup of 1970 and Assad's election as President in 1971 . Since then, he has ruthlessly repressed internal political...

Al-Assad, Hafez

Al-Assad, Hafez (1930)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
387 words

...-Assad, Hafez (b. Qardaha, Syria , 1930 ; d. Damascus , 10 Jun. 2000 ) Syrian ; President 1971–2000 A member of the minority Alawi sect, Assad joined the Ba'ath party at 16. After the party won power in 1963 , he became Air Force Commander in 1965 and Defence Minister in 1966 . The power struggle within the party between Dr Atassi's Marxist-orientated faction and Assad's nationalist faction was ended by the military coup of 1970 and Assad's election as President in 1971 . Since then, he has ruthlessly repressed internal political opposition,...

Assad, Hafez al-, and Bashār al-Assad

Assad, Hafez al-, and Bashār al-Assad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Hafez al-, and Bashār al-Assad . Hafez al-Assad ( b. 1930 ) was born Hafez Wahhāsh in Qardaha, an ʿAlawī village in northern Syria. He became one of the most enduring rulers in the modern Arab world, ruling Syria for almost thirty years with an iron fist and astute political gamesmanship. As a nationalist, Assad was steadfast in defending Syria's national interests and territorial integrity while being pragmatic in recognizing the need for compromise in international relations. Hafez al-Assad had a meteoric rise to the pinnacle of power in Syria. As a...

Assad, Hafez al-

Assad, Hafez al-   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
49 words
Hafez al- Assad

Hafez al- Assad  

(b. 6 Oct. 1930, d. 16 Oct. 2000).President of Syria 1971–2000Early careerBorn in Qardaha into the Alawi sect, he became an officer in the airforce. He joined the Ba'ath Party in the 1950s, and ...
Names

Names   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
3,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., al , an , ar , bin (son of), bint (daughter of), el , ibn (son of), and umm (mother of). Note that some Arabic prefixes are always capitalized; some require hyphens. All particles are capitalized when the surname stands alone—hence Noor al Hussein becomes Al Hussein , Ahmad el-Ahmiad becomes El-Ahmiad , and Jasmine umm Kulthum becomes Umm Kulthum . As a rule, particles are retained <bin Laden> , but there are exceptions, usually in the names of well-known people—e.g., Anwar al-Sadat becomes Sadat , Hafez al-Assad becomes Assad ,...

Bashar al- Assad

Bashar al- Assad  

(b. 11 Sept. 1965).President of Syria 2000–  Born in Damascus as the second son of Hafez al-Assad, he studied medicine at Damascus University, specializing in ophthalmology. Following the death of ...
Bashar Al-Assad

Bashar Al-Assad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Damascus, 11 Sept. 1965)Syrian; President of Syria 2000–  The second son of Hafez al-Assad, he was completing his training as an ophthalmologist in London when his older brother, Basil al-Assad, ...
Dawlah

Dawlah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An Arabic term from the root d-w-l, meaning to rotate, alternate, take turns, or occur periodically, dawlah, in a modern context, refers to the state. In modern Persian a similar ...
Ba'athism

Ba'athism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Refers to the political philosophy of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (hizb al‐ba'ath al‐arabi al‐ishtiraki). This party is the result of the 1952 merger of two parties—the Arab Ba'ath Party founded ...
Damascus

Damascus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Capital of the Arab Republic of Syria. Cosmopolitan metropolis of very ancient origins; has been a major center of Islamic culture ever since its conquest by the Muslims in the seventh century. Was ...
Syria

Syria  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
After several years of retreat Syria is again a major player in Middle East politicsSyria has three main regions. One is a narrow fertile coastal strip that has year-round supplies of water. To the ...
Assad, Lake

Assad, Lake (Syria)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Assad, Lake ( al-Assad, Buḥayrat ) , Syria Named after Hafez al-Assad ( 1930–2000 ), President of Syria ( 1971–2000 ), this was one of many infrastructure projects in Syria initiated by him. The largest lake and reservoir in Syria, it was created in 1974...

Assad, Bashar al-

Assad, Bashar al- (1965–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
136 words

...Assad, Bashar al- ( 1965– ) President of Syria since 2000 . Trained as an ophthalmologist in London, Bashar al-Assad was not expected to succeed his father, Hafez al-Assad , but his older brother Bassel died in a car accident in 1994 . Bashar al-Assad became President after Hafez’s death in June 2000 and initiated a short-lived political opening known as the Damascus Spring in 2001 . Under Assad, Syria withdraw its forces from Lebanon following the Cedar Revolution in 2005 . Nationwide demonstrations began in Syria as part of the Arab Spring ...

Ba'ath Party

Ba'ath Party   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
47 words

...Party Arab political party, founded in 1943 . Its major objectives are socialism and Arab unity. It is strongest in Iraq and Syria, and militaristic elements of the Ba'ath Party seized power in those countries in 1968 and 1970 respectively. See also Assad, Hafez al- ; Hussein,...

Syria, Islam in

Syria, Islam in   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
147 words

...Syria, Islam in The Muslim population of Syria is composed of a Sunni majority and four minority Shii sects: Alawis, Druzes, Ismailis, and Twelver Shiis. In March 1963 a military coup installed a secular, socialist regime with an Alawi ruler (former president Hafez al-Assad ; his son Bashir is the current president). The most intractable challenge to Baathist rule has come from Islamic groups, most notably the Muslim Brotherhood. The first Islamic uprising was in 1964 in Hama; other sectarian disturbances followed in 1967 . Discontent lay mainly in the...

Ba'ath Party

Ba'ath Party   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
122 words

...of Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, and anti-imperialism. Ba'athism reflected the political vision of its founders, Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar . The Ba'ath Party first came to power in Iraq and Syria after military coups in 1963 but split into separate branches in each country after an internal struggle in 1966 . The Ba'ath Party was the movement associated with the rule of Hafez al-Assad in Syria from 1970 to 2000 and Saddam Hussein in Iraq between 1979 and 2003...

Nuṣairī

Nuṣairī   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
118 words

...of God, that the Qurʾān is an initiation to devotion to ʿAlī, and that ʿAlī, Muḥammad , and Salmān al-Farsī (identified with the archangel Gabriel ) are a trinity. Their tenets are mostly secret, for they practice an initiatory rite which lays importance on taʾwīl (allegorical interpretation) of Qurʾān. The Nuṣairī employ taqīya (dissimulation). Since the 1980s the Nuṣairī have become powerful in Syrian politics. Hafez Assad, a Nuṣairī, rose to become leader of Syria over a Sunnī ...

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