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Gustavus Franklin Swift

Gustavus Franklin Swift (1839–1903) was the eponymous founder of one of America's largest and best-known meat-processing companies. He is credited with introducing refrigeration to food ...

Swift, Gustavus Franklin

Swift, Gustavus Franklin (1839–1903)   Reference library

Bruce Kraig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Gustavus Franklin Gustavus Franklin Swift ( 1839–1903 ) was the eponymous founder of one of America's largest and best known meat-processing companies. He is credited with introducing refrigeration to food transportation networks, but his greater importance lay in the organizational concepts and methods he created: Swift was a father of America's modern food-processing and distribution systems. Born and reared on hardscrabble Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and with little formal education, Swift went to work as a butcher's apprentice at age fourteen. Not long...

Gustavus Franklin Swift

Gustavus Franklin Swift  

Gustavus Franklin Swift (1839–1903) was the eponymous founder of one of America's largest and best-known meat-processing companies. He is credited with introducing refrigeration to food ...
Louis Franklin Swift

Louis Franklin Swift  

(1861–1937)Louis Franklin Swift was born in Sagamore, Massachusetts on 27 September 1861, the eldest son of Gustavus and Annie Maria Swift. He died of heart disease in Chicago on ...
Philip Danforth Armour

Philip Danforth Armour  

Born in 1832 on a farm in Stockbridge (now Oneida), New York—close to the Erie Canal—Philip Danforth Armour was uniquely prepared to recognize and capitalize on the integration of agriculture ...
Butchering

Butchering  

The word “butcher,” from the French boucher, dating back to the thirteenth century, is synonymous with slaughtering and meatpacking. Butchering entails dismembering animals and fowl and salvaging ...
hot dog

hot dog  

Frankfurter sausage in a long bread roll. Reputedly named after a cartoon drawn by Tad Dorgan of Chicago in 1906 showed a dachshund dog inside a frankfurter bun.
Livestock Industry.

Livestock Industry.  

Various means of marketing livestock developed in colonial America. Boston became a market town in the seventeenth century, as did nearby Brighton a century later, as holding pens surrounded ...
Meatpacking Industry

Meatpacking Industry  

At the start of the twentieth century, most U.S. meatpacking workers came from Eastern Europe, like the Lithuanians in Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle (1906). By World War II companies ...
ice

ice  

When the water content of snow falls below about 8% grain growth occurs by vapour flux of the air in the pores. The resulting growth of ice grains is very slow. In general, growth in wet snow speeds ...
meat

meat  

Generally refers to the muscle tissue of animals or birds, other parts being termed offal, organ meat, or variety meat. 150‐g portions of meat of all types are rich sources of protein and niacin; ...
transportation

transportation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The activity of moving things from one location to another, for example using vehicle to transport people or goods.
Swift, Louis Franklin

Swift, Louis Franklin (1861–1937)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
648 words

..., Louis Franklin ( 1861–1937 ) Louis Franklin Swift was born in Sagamore, Massachusetts on 27 September 1861 , the eldest son of Gustavus and Annie Maria Swift . He died of heart disease in Chicago on 12 May 1937 . He married Ida Butler in 1880 , and they had six children. The Swifts came from an old-established New England family, and claimed descent from the original seventeenth-century colonists on the Mayflower . In 1875 the family moved to Chicago, where Gustavus Swift founded a successful meat-packing business, buying cattle and other...

Swift, Gustavus

Swift, Gustavus (1839–1903)   Reference library

Paul Street

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Gustavus ( 1839–1903 ) , meatpacker and corporate innovator. The younger son of a large Cape Cod farm family, Gustavus Franklin Swift rose from a partnership in a Boston wholesale meat market to become a legendary captain of the meatpacking industry in Chicago. The key to Swift's ascendancy was his use of refrigerated railroad cars to ship dressed beef from livestock markets and packing plants in Chicago and other western centers to eastern, urban markets. Employing that technology to integrate the entire production-to-distribution process, Swift...

Armour, Philip Danforth

Armour, Philip Danforth   Reference library

Gary Allen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...complications of keeping refrigerated cars iced. In 1889 Armour was successful in persuading the railroads to ship dressed beef. By the end of his life, in 1901 , more than six thousand refrigerated cars bore the Armour logo. [ See also Canning and Bottling ; Pigs ; Swift, Gustavus Franklin ; Transportation of Food: Railroads .] Bibliography Geib, Paul. E. “ Everything but the Squeal: The Milwaukee Stockyards and Meat-packing Industry .” Wisconsin Magazine of History 78 (1994): 2–23. Leech, Harper , and John Charles Carroll . Armour and His Times ....

Ice

Ice   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...makers appeared in the 1960s. Nevertheless, commercial ice companies continue to provide ice for the fishing industry, as well as ice cubes for parties and the coolers of campers, sailors, and picnickers. [ See also Freezers and Freezing ; Iceboxes ; Refrigerators ; Swift, Gustavus Franklin ; Transportation of Food .] Bibliography Anderson, Oscar Edward , Jr. Refrigeration in America: A History of a New Technology and Its Impact . 1953. Reprint, Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972. Funderburg, Ann Cooper . Chocolate, Strawberry, and Vanilla: A...

Butchering

Butchering   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...habitat. Being fed on less expensive materials and in close proximity has made them more prone to all sorts of illnesses, and CAFOs are blamed for butchery-related disease outbreaks. [ See also Armour, Philip Danforth ; ConAgra ; Meat ; Pigs ; Sinclair, Upton ; Swift, Gustavus Franklin .] Bibliography Horowitz, Roger . Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. “ How New York Is Fed .” Scribner's Monthly , October 1877. Reprint, Journal of Gastronomy 4 (Spring 1988):...

Continental Navy

Continental Navy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Capt. Lambert Wickes and Gustavus Conyngham sailed in British home waters, capturing several enemy vessels and generally embarrassing the Royal Navy. The most famous Continental captain to sail these waters, however, was John Paul Jones . Having sailed the Continental sloop of war Ranger to France, Jones lobbied the French for the loan of a large warship. Thanks to help from Benjamin Franklin , the French provided him with an old East Indiaman, Duc de Duras , which he renamed Bon Homme Richard in honor of his friend Franklin. Jones took his ship,...

Hot Dogs

Hot Dogs   Reference library

Bruce Kraig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...retail stores alone. The hot dog remained an icon of American life as commemorated in the advertising slogan: “Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and Chevrolet.” [ See also Amusement Parks ; Armour, Philip Danforth ; German American Food ; Oscar Mayer ; Street Vendors ; Swift, Gustavus Franklin .] Bibliography Barnhart, David K. , and Metcalf, Allan A. America in So Many Words: Words That Have Shaped America . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Cohen, Gerald , ed. “Compiling Material for a Book on Hot Dog —Part I: Bibliography.” Comments on Etymology 33, no. 3...

Slaughterhouses

Slaughterhouses   Reference library

Gary Allen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...that guided the cattle into position for slaughter. Oddly enough, the industry was slow to adopt her methods, even though the quality of meat obtained from unfrightened animals is better. [ See also Armour, Philip Danforth ; Butchering ; Chicago ; Sinclair, Upton ; Swift, Gustavus Franklin ; Transportation of Food .] Bibliography Allen, Gary . “Upton Sinclair.” In Culinary Biographies , edited by Alice Arndt , pp. 346–348. Houston, Tex.: Yes Press, 2006. Brantz, Dorothee . “Recollecting the Slaughterhouse.” Cabinet 4 (Fall 2001). ...

Transportation of Food

Transportation of Food   Reference library

Corinna Hawkes, Andrew F. Smith, Andrew F. Smith, Andrew F. Smith, Andrew F. Smith, and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Smith, Andrew F. Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War . New York: St. Martin's Press, 2011. Stover, John F. American Railroads . 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. Swift, Louis Franklin . The Yankee of the Yards: The Biography of Gustavus Franklin Swift . Chicago and New York: A. W. Shaw Co., 1927. U.S. Federal Trade Commission. Food Investigation Report of the Federal Trade Commission on Private Car Lines, June 27, 1919 . Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920. Wade, Louise...

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