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Gulag

A system of labour camps maintained in the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 in which many people died. Besides ordinary criminals, inmates included dissident intellectuals, political ...

gulag

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
42 words

... Network of detention centres and forced-labour prisons within the former Soviet Union. The term is an acronym in Russian for Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps. Established in 1918 , gulags were secret concentration camps used to silence political and religious...

Gulag

Gulag   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
387 words

...Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror . Translated by Vadim A. Staklo , with editorial assistance and commentary by David J. Nordlander. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004. An English-language edition of documents from official Soviet archives on the 1930s Gulag. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander I. The Gulag Archipelago, 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation . 3 vols. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney . New York: Westview Press, 1991–1992. A combination primary source and secondary source. Still the best single study of the Gulag....

Gulag

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Stephen Whitefield

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
87 words

... Russian acronym for ‘Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps’. The ostensible purpose of these camps, dispersed throughout the less inhabited areas of the Soviet Union, was to imprison and reform citizens guilty of various ‘crimes against the people’. Inmates were used as forced labour in the drive for rapid industrialization and infrastructural development. The atrocious conditions of the camps were publicized by the first-hand accounts of Solzhenitsyn, and it is estimated that the Gulags accounted for between 9.5 and 15 million deaths. Stephen...

GUlag

GUlag   Reference library

Akashi Yoji, Norman Davies, and Robert Service

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,918 words
Illustration(s):
1

... , Russian acronym for Main Administration of Camps', a branch of the NKVD dedicated to the running of Soviet slave labour camps. By extension, the term is also used to describe the network of camps over which the GUlag presided. Together with ordinary gaols and zones of administrative exile, the camps constituted the core of the Soviet system of repression. The inmates, both men and women, would usually have passed a brief period of arrest and interrogation before being sentenced in absentia to a fixed period of 8, 10, 12, or 25 year's hard labour. They...

Gulag Archipelago

Gulag Archipelago ([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
120 words

... Archipelago [Hist.] The name of the system of forced-labour camps in the Soviet Union, specifically in the period 1930–55 , in which hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, died. The term became widely known in the West in the 1960s and 1970s with the translation of Alexander Solzhenitsyn 's works, notably The Gulag Archipelago . > An oppressive prison-like environment It is highly likely that some of these people (genuine refugees as well as illegal immigrants) will be condemned to remain indefinitely in detention behind barbed wire fences on these...

Soviet Gulag

Soviet Gulag   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,996 words

...work made the words “Gulag” and zek , the slang term for a prison camp inmate (from the abbreviation zk for zakluchyonnii , “prisoner”), known throughout the world so that for many people the Gulag became synonymous with Stalinism. But the Gulag did not die with Stalin. The number of zeks in the Gulag decreased in the 1950s thanks to the amnesties that followed Stalin's death and the partial liberalization of Soviet politics under his successor, Nikita Khrushchev . The management of the Soviet prison camp system changed, but the Gulag endured. The Soviet...

Gulag

Gulag   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... . The abbreviation of Russian Glavnoye upravleniye ispravitel'no-trudovykh lagerey , ‘Chief Administration for Corrective Labour Camps’. Such camps were a notorious feature of the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 and resulted in the deaths of thousands of prisoners. Their true nature was revealed to the public at large by Alexander Solzhenitsyn 's The Gulag Archipelago ( 1973...

Gulag

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The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... a system of labour camps maintained in the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 in which many people died. Besides ordinary criminals, inmates included dissident intellectuals, political opponents, and members of ethnic minorities; the word became widely known in the west in the 1960s and 1970s with the translation of Alexander Solzhenitsyn's works, notably The Gulag Archipelago . The word is Russian, from G(lavnoe) u(pravlenie ispravitel′no-trudovykh) lag(ereĭ) ‘Chief Administration for Corrective Labour...

gulag

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
107 words

... • bag , blag, brag, Bragg, crag, dag, drag, fag, flag, gag, hag, jag, lag, mag, nag, quag, rag, sag, scrag, shag, slag, snag, sprag, stag, swag, tag, wag, zag • ragbag • saddlebag • handbag , sandbag • gasbag • manbag • ratbag • air bag • mailbag • fleabag , tea bag • beanbag • windbag • kitbag • dillybag • carpet bag • washbag • growbag • nosebag • bumbag , scumbag • punchbag • Stalag • jetlag • greylag • gulag • dishrag • bullyrag • Morag • ragtag • hashtag • dog tag • Sontag • wigwag • chinwag • scallywag ( US scallawag) •...

Gulag

Gulag noun   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
60 words

... noun (also gulag ) M20 Russian (acronym, from G lavnoe u pravlenie ispravitel'no-trudovykh lag ereĭ Chief Administration for Corrective Labor Camps). 1 M20 A department of the Soviet secret police that administered corrective labor camps and prisons between 1934 and 1955 . rare . 2 L20 The Soviet network of labor camps; a camp or prison within it; figurative a coercive institution, an oppressive...

ˈgulag

ˈgulag nm inv   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: Italian-English (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
4 words
Gulag

Gulag n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
6 words
Gulag

Gulag noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
85 words
Gulag

Gulag noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
89 words
Gulag

Gulag noun   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
105 words
gulag

gulag noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
87 words
Gulag

Gulag noun   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
109 words
Gulag

Gulag  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A system of labour camps maintained in the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 in which many people died. Besides ordinary criminals, inmates included dissident intellectuals, political opponents, and ...
Gulag Archipelago, The

Gulag Archipelago, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... Archipelago, The . A three-volume history ( 1974–78 ; in Russian as Arkhipelag Gulag , 1973–76 ) of the Gulag , the Soviet administrative department responsible for maintaining prisons and forced labour camps, by Alexander Solzhenitsyn . Having been awarded the Nobel prize for Literature ( 1970 ), the author was in 1974 deported after the publication in Paris of the first two volumes and the suicide of his former assistant who, after five days of interrogation by the kgb , had revealed where she had hidden a copy of the complete...

prison camps, Soviet

prison camps, Soviet  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Punitive institutions for forced labour in the former Soviet Union. The tradition of exiling political protesters and reformers to Siberia was well-established in 19th-century Russia. By a decree of ...

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