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Greek religion

The religion of the ancient Greek world. It was polytheistic, involving the worship of several gods and goddesses. The most important deities were the sky-god Zeus (ruler of Olympus), his ...

religion, Greek

religion, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7 words

..., Greek ( see page 652...

Greek religion

Greek religion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
109 words

... religion The religion of the ancient Greek world. It was polytheistic, involving the worship of several gods and goddesses. The most important deities were the sky-god Zeus (ruler of Olympus), his wife Hera (goddess of marriage), Poseidon (god of sea and earthquakes), the virgin goddess Athene (learning and the arts), Apollo and his sister Artemis (Sun and Moon, the one patron of music and poetry, the other of chastity and hunting), Hephaestus (fire and metalwork), Aphrodite (love and beauty), Ares (war), Demeter (crops), Hestia (hearth and home), and...

religion, Greek

religion, Greek   Reference library

Emily Kearns

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,293 words

...Greek City (1992; Fr. orig. 1989); Parker , ARH ; S. Price , Religions of the Ancient Greeks (1999); Parker , Polytheism ; D. Ogden (ed.), A Companion to Greek Religion (2007); R. Parker, On Greek Religion (2011). Sources: much epigraphic documentation in the collections of Sacred Laws . Collection with archaeological and iconographical emphasis and extensive commentary, ThesCRA . Translations of epigraphic and literary sources in D. G. Rice and J. E. Stambaugh , Sources for the Study of Greek Religion (1979); E. Kearns , Ancient Greek...

religion, Greek

religion, Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,097 words

..., Greek The cult practices and pantheons of different Greek communities have enough in common to be seen as one system, and were generally understood as such by the Greeks. Boundaries between Greek and non‐Greek religion were not sharp. Herodotus characterizes ‘Greekness’ as having common temples and rituals (as well as common descent, language, and customs). Origins We can trace some Greek deities to Indo‐European origins: Zeus , like Jupiter , has evolved from an original Sky Father, while the relation between the Dioscuri and the Aśvins, the...

religion, Greek, terms relating to

religion, Greek, terms relating to   Reference library

Emily Kearns

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
503 words

..., Greek, terms relating to The semantics of Greek and Latin in this regard are very different from those of modern European languages. In Greek, the most important word denoting the sacred was ἱερός, denoting basically something which is consecrated to a god, although its use in Homer may reflect an original meaning ‘strong’. A related sense is ‘connected with cult’; thus ἱερά are religious rites, or materials, especially victims, for them. Contrasting with ἱερός, both ὅσιος and εὐσεβής, with their corresponding abstract nouns, cover some of the meaning...

Greek religion

Greek religion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The religion of the ancient Greek world. It was polytheistic, involving the worship of several gods and goddesses. The most important deities were the sky-god Zeus (ruler of Olympus), his wife Hera ...
Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mythographical poetry. He described pagan (and particularly Greek) myths as ‘so many beautiful forms … if they were ever pernicious, they have now lost their venom, and may serve to show how much, and how little, the unaided intellect can effect for itself.’ Pagan mythology was safely circumscribed within the aesthetic realm, its fragility and effeminate beauty providing a marked contrast with the sinews of revealed Christianity. As Hartley declared, ‘the moral being has gained a religion, and the imagination has lost one’. The poetical use of heathen...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the book becomes more than itself, a visual representation not only of the contents within but of the idea of the book altogether. At least in the case of the Semitic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this valorization of the book at least partly occurs because of the continual skirmish with iconoclasm. An extraordinary side-effect of this has been the tendency in all three religions towards what can only be described as fetishistic practices of preservation or worship of the material form of the sacred book. The incorporation of the holy book into...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the gymnasia that eventually spread Greek physical and intellectual values throughout the Hellenized world. People wrote *letters , contracts, and wills, and court cases depended on written documents. It is not safe, however, to assume that people in ancient Greece read in precisely the same way that modern Europeans do. The fact that texts were written without word division ( scripta continua ) made vocalization almost imperative, so that reading aloud remained normative throughout Greek culture. In time, some Greeks developed the ability to read silently,...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and European Turkey. Geographical position defines the Balkan identity, but the region is diverse politically, ethnically, and linguistically. The book culture of the area is characterized by the coexistence in its history of different ethnic groups (e.g. Celts, Illyrians, Romans, Avars, Vlachs, Germans, Slavs, and Turks), languages (e.g. Latin, Greek, Albanian, various Slavonic and Turkic languages), cultures, religions (e.g. paganism, Catholicism, Orthodox...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Their needs are limited; they trade (solely with Japan) without desiring luxury or superfluity. They are still prey to warfare, to outbreaks of public violence, to crime, and to the pangs of romantic desire unfulfilled. But a sudden change of religion converts ‘this Eden into a land of strife’, for the new religion, clearly modelled on Catholicism, is superstitious and corrupt in the extreme. Its priests manufacture relics, and are distinguished by their greed and utter disbelief in their professed principles. Ironically, this conservative anti-Catholicism...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Church Fathers, Greek and Latin classics, and neo-Latin literature. Many of these books were of the highest typographic quality, some of them illustrated by leading artists of the time, among them *Holbein the younger. Important printers active in Basle at the time include *Amerbach , *Petri , and J. *Froben , who collaborated on major printing projects up to 1511 . Froben’s printing house, in which a Latin bible was produced as early as 1491 , became a centre of humanist book production (with books printed in Latin and Greek, as well as Hebrew) to...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Jesus was a Palestinian Jew, the world of the New Testament was dominated by Greek language and culture; the language itself had been transformed from classical Attic Greek into koinē (common) or Hellenistic Greek, which became the language of the New Testament. Using material such as papyrus, parchment, or wooden *tablets , Christians preferred the *codex (book-like form), previously used for letter-writing and record-keeping, over the scroll employed in Judaism or for Greek literature. Scholars have offered several reasons for the adoption of the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...initially in the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman works. This innovation was prompted in part by the Council of Ferrara and Florence in 1438 , which attempted a conciliation between the Western and Orthodox churches; although the council ultimately failed, it did establish a direct acquaintance with Greek culture and language, up to that time known to Italian intellectuals principally through medieval Latin. The subsequent fall of Byzantium (Constantinople) in 1453 precipitated a migration of Greek scholars, often with MSS in their baggage, who...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the Greek and Latin classics employing the stereotype process, which he was the first to use in Germany. In 1837 , his nephew Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz established his own business, which became famous for its Collection of British and American Authors, founded in 1841 : this eventually comprised some 5,400 titles. *Tauchnitz secured the goodwill of authors by voluntarily paying them a royalty and undertaking not to sell the books in Britain or its empire. Another Leipzig publisher was *Teubner , renowned for editions of the Greek and Latin...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...is a literate religion, like Judaism and Islam. Books—manuscripts (MSS)—were essential to Christianity’s success and consolidation. The Scriptures, with written commentaries and interpretations, were fundamental to medieval religious life, and the Christian liturgy was inconceivable without readings and recitations from books. Every church and monastery in Europe inevitably required and used books of some kind. Moreover, Christianity entered into a world where books had been known and valued. The nostalgic and lingering respect for Greek and Roman classical...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The intensity of the debates on education in the next century and a half reflected a concurrence of various pressures, old and new: lingering tension between the religious establishment and Dissenters of various kinds, with their competing claims for children's souls [ see *religion , 10]; the intellectual ferment of the *Enlightenment [32] , with its predominant view of human differences as environmentally determined, rather than hereditary, and therefore amenable to adjustment through changed material and educational circumstances; the visible advent of...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...schoolboy he discovered Spenser and Warton. By 1789 he had formed his project to write a long poem on the world's major religions, or in effect on different medievalisms; he began to learn Welsh. In 1792 he found Frank Sayers 's ( 1763–1817 ) Dramatic Sketches of Norse Mythology ( 1790 ), a series of imitations of the ‘voices’ of the different Dark Age inhabitants of Britain, written in an archaic verse form borrowed from the Greek chorus. As a radical Oxford student, Southey from 1793 began his own experiments with traditional forms—eclogues,...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Speaks for his People , was published in London by the *Hogarth Press in 1934 ; Kenyatta’s Facing Mount Kenya ( 1938 ) followed. Early works in Gĩkũyũ were mostly inspired by the oral narrative tradition or were accounts of a society under threat from colonial settler religion and government—e.g. the early landmark book by Stanley Kiãma Gathĩgĩra, Miikarire ya Agikuyu ( Customs of the Kikuyu , 1933 ), published by the Church of Scotland Mission press, Tumutumu. Vernacular presses, newspapers, and book publishing developed widely after World War II....

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...writers such as T. J. *Mathias believed that Thomas *Paine 's Rights of Man ( 1791 ) had not just spread subversion but also a dangerous literacy, whereas Hannah *More believed that reading, properly monitored, would provide a channel through which the antidotes of *religion [10] and morals could be administered. The spectre of an increasingly literate population, whether real or imagined, desirable or undesirable, helps explain the urgency of debates from the middle of the eighteenth century about what constituted ‘correct’ English. While much of...

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