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Greek calendar

There was no single Greek calendar. Almost every Greek community had a calendar of its own, differing from others in the names of the months and the date of the New Year. All were, at ...

Calendar, Greek

Calendar, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,336 words

...it was an Egyptian Greek, Sosigenes, who formulated for Julius Caesar the solar calendar with which we still, in effect, live. [ See also Calendar, Roman .] Bibliography Bickerman, E. J. Chronology of the Ancient World . London. 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980. An accessible study of Greek and Roman calendars and chronology, with useful tables and lists. Hannah, Robert . Greek and Roman Calendars: Constructions of Time in the Classical World . London: Duckworth, 2005. A study of the development of Greek and Roman calenders, set...

calendar, Greek

calendar, Greek   Reference library

Jon D. Mikalson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
844 words

..., Greek There was no single Greek calendar. Almost every Greek community had a calendar of its own, differing from others in the names of the months and the date of the New Year. All were, at least originally, lunar. The months were named after festivals held or deities specially honoured in them. Dios and Artemisios, Macedonian months, were, for example, named after Zeus and Artemis ; Anthesterion at Athens from the festival Anthesteria . Such month names are found in Linear B and in literature as early as Hesiod ( Op. 504). In much later times...

calendar, Greek

calendar, Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
195 words

..., Greek There was no single Greek calendar. Almost every Greek community had a calendar of its own, differing from others in the names of the months and the date of the New Year. All were, at least originally, lunar. The months were named after festivals held or deities specially honoured in them. Dios and Artemisios, Macedonian months, were named after Zeus and Artemis ; Anthesterion at Athens from the festival Anthesteria . Such month names are found in Hesiod . The Athenian calendar is best known. The year began, in theory, with the appearance of...

Greek calendar

Greek calendar  

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Overview Page
There was no single Greek calendar. Almost every Greek community had a calendar of its own, differing from others in the names of the months and the date of the New Year. All were, at least ...
1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...of the first alphabet is even more perplexing. That the alphabet reached the modern world via the ancient Greeks is well known—the word ‘alphabet’ comes from the first two of the Greek letters, alpha and beta—but we have no clear idea of how and when the alphabet appeared in Greece; how the Greeks thought of adding letters standing for the vowels as well as the consonants; and how, even more fundamentally, the idea of an alphabet occurred to the pre-Greek societies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean during the 2 nd millennium bc . The first well-attested...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the gymnasia that eventually spread Greek physical and intellectual values throughout the Hellenized world. People wrote *letters , contracts, and wills, and court cases depended on written documents. It is not safe, however, to assume that people in ancient Greece read in precisely the same way that modern Europeans do. The fact that texts were written without word division ( scripta continua ) made vocalization almost imperative, so that reading aloud remained normative throughout Greek culture. In time, some Greeks developed the ability to read silently,...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... *Comenius ' work, as well as the famous *calendars of Lőcse. Nicholas *Kis followed the same pattern, starting his apprenticeship with *Blaeu in Amsterdam, improving his type designing, cutting, and printing skills. By 1685 he had produced 3,500 copies of his Amsterdam Bible. In 1686 he published the Book of Psalms, translated by Albert Szenczi Molnár , and the New Testament in the following year. His European fame led to commissions from Holland, Germany, England, Sweden, and Poland. His Georgian, *Greek , *Hebrew , and *Armenian type s, cut with...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...edition of Aesop’s Fables ( 1488 ?). A Czech version of the popular Legenda Aurea , known as Pasionál , was printed twice, once lavishly illustrated, but it is the unillustrated edition that represents the height of Czech incunabula *typography . There were *almanacs , *calendars , and other works, including Von den heissen Bädern (Brno, 1495 ), Folz’s tract on the medicinal value of bathing in natural hot springs. Sacred incunabula are dominated by biblical texts. The first complete bible in Czech, a *folio of 610 leaves printed in double columns...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...historians have been organized by the various societies involved, and others have been provided by the Workers’ Educational Association and university extramural departments. These have all made valiant efforts to improve the standard of the work done. The transcription, calendaring, and indexing of documents on a large scale by local family history societies and by some individuals, and the collection of large quantities of data by genealogists, particularly those interested in one‐name studies, in turn fuelled an early interest in computers and in...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...routine. The proliferation of lay psalters was not restricted to Paris, and clear clusters of production can be identified in places like Artois (perhaps in St-Omer), Bruges, Oxford, Alsace (probably in Strasbourg), Würzburg, Regensburg, and elsewhere. The usual format was a *calendar at the front, listing the saints’ days for the year, followed by a sequence of full-page pictures; then came the psalter itself, with the 150 psalms, usually divided into eight sections, each marked with a large initial, continuing without a break into the biblical canticles,...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the extent to which printing quickly became a common aspect of 15 th -century society. Such works included the writings of the humanists, of authors such as Sebastian Brant and Girolamo Savonarola, diplomatic and funeral orations, sacre rappresentazioni , indulgences, and calendars. An analysis of the titles available to the late 15 th -century market has been prepared by Hermand et al ., using data from the 1998 illustrated ISTC. It shows that almost one third of the total output was in the category of literature, of which 53 per cent were lay texts...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and technology. It is, however, difficult to quantify this precisely. Given the lack of exact information about the number of *printing offices , the titles they published, and indeed the vague definition of ‘book’ (whether, for instance, proclamations, pamphlets, and *calendars are included), estimates are largely speculative. It has been claimed that in the 16 th century 150,000 items were published in Germany, while estimates for the 17 th century range between 85,000 and 150,000, and for the 18 th century between 175,000 and 500,000. With the...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the regional centre for bookselling, printing, and publishing activity, with many bookshops also operating reading rooms and lending libraries. In Silesia and East Prussia, material was also produced for the Polish-speaking population—chiefly popular and religious literature, *calendars , journals, and practical manuals. 6 Nineteenth-century Polish publishing abroad Publishing activity both by Polish exile communities of the Great Emigration after the failed Uprising of 1830–31 and by subsequent waves of political refugees was particularly important. The...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for the Calcutta printing trade. *stationery , legal and mercantile *forms , *handbills , etc. formed the staple of their survival, a further sign that the trade was coming of age. The most characteristic product of the trade was the *almanac , with three different *calendars : Muslim, Hindu, and Christian. In fact, the trade in almanacs still continues to be a lucrative sector of the Bengali book trade. Materials and equipment—type, paper, ink, and the presses—had to be imported from Europe. Some type was manufactured locally, notably by Daniel...

Julian calendar

Julian calendar  

The form of calendar first introduced in 46 bc by the Roman emperor Julius Caesar, after whom it is named. It was prepared in consultation with the Greek astronomer Sosigenes (1st century bc). Each ...
apophrades

apophrades  

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Were ‘impure’ days of the Athenian calendar, days associated with inauspicious rites (as e.g. of the Plynteria (Plutarch Alcestis 34; Pollux 8. 141), homicide trials in the Areopagus court, and ...
Roman calendar

Roman calendar  

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March remained the first month of the year until 153 bc. From then the official year of the consuls and most other Roman magistrates began on 1 January. March, May, Quintilis (July), and October had ...
Thargelia

Thargelia  

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A festival of Apollo held in Athens (7th of Thargelion, late May), some Ionian cities, and their colonies; it belongs to the pre‐colonial calendar (see calendar, greek; colonization, greek). Scholars ...
Metonic cycle

Metonic cycle  

A period of 19 years after which the Moon's phases repeat on approximately the same calendar dates. The cycle was discovered by the ancient Greek astronomer Meton in the 5th century bc and is used in ...
Sosigenes

Sosigenes  

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(c.1st century bc) Egyptian astronomerNothing seems to be known about Sosigenes apart from his design of the Julian calendar. By the time of Julius Caesar the Roman calendar was hopelessly out of ...

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