You are looking at 1-20 of 680 entries  for:

  • All: Greek Literacy x
clear all

View:

Overview

Greek Literacy

Greek literacy cannot be understood in isolation, but only in the context of earlier forms of literacy. Literacy, hard to define, always refers to the ability to decode marks on a surface ...

Literacy, Greek

Literacy, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,701 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that actors or chorus can pronounce in the same way. The basis of Greek literacy, however, was in the recording by dictation of oral verse, with its metrical and unusual forms that predisposed expression to exaggerated flights, defying easy understanding. Greek literacy was born. At first a tool of the aristocracy, by the fifth century bce Greek literacy was more widely diffused, especially in Athens, where we find most of our inscriptions from the Classical period. Alphabetic literacy's role in Athenian democracy is hard to measure, but it was certainly...

Greek Literacy

Greek Literacy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Greek literacy cannot be understood in isolation, but only in the context of earlier forms of literacy. Literacy, hard to define, always refers to the ability to decode marks on a surface that refer ...
36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the beginning of printing The Balkans could be called the birthplace of Slavonic *literacy , which began in the second half of the 9 th century with the missionary activities of the brothers Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius, Byzantine Greeks from Thessaloniki. They introduced *Glagolitic and later the *Cyrillic alphabet, translating parts of the Bible and some service books into the Old Church Slavonic understood by all Slavs. The first Slavonic centres of literacy developed at Ohrid (now in Macedonia) and Preslav (the capital of the first Bulgarian...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from the issue of regional dialects, literacy was one of the important ways in which the language community within England itself was divided. The best available evidence suggests that while around 70 per cent of English men and 90 per cent of English women could not write their own names in the mid-seventeenth century, by the middle of the next century the figures had changed to 40 per cent and just over 60 per cent. On the basis of material drawn from the signatures required by Hardwick 's Marriage Act ( 1753 ), literacy seems to have stagnated at around...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

..., tr. and ed. Z. Bahrani et al . (2003; French original, 2000) A. Grafton et al . , Christianity and the Transformation of the Book (2006) W. Harris , Ancient Literacy (1989) S. D. Houston , ed., The First Writing (2004) M. A. Hussein , Origins of the Book (1970) W. A. Johnson , Bookrolls and Scribes in Oxyrhynchus (2004) F. Kenyon , Books and Readers in Ancient Greece and Rome , 2e (1951) T. Kleberg , Buchhandel und Verlagswesen in der Antike (1967) R. Pfeiffer , History of Classical Scholarship from the Beginnings to the End of the...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...innovations designed for the friars by the booksellers of Paris in the 1230s are still found in any traditional modern printed bible today. 6 Lay literacy If the small-format friars’ bibles represent the first moment of the mass publication of popular books in Europe, there was also a constantly increasing and important market for books at the other end of the social spectrum. The relentless advance of lay literacy is a consistent theme throughout most of the history of Europe in the last thousand years, even now. The Ottonian and Carolingian emperors had...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which they organized from the 1780s on. Some of these enterprises not only taught the rudiments of literacy; they also attempted to replace the religious indoctrination of the Sunday schools run by the likes of Mrs Trimmer and Mrs More by a more rational education, involving the reading and discussion of political literature. At all age levels, and in all classes, the formal schooling of women was not nearly as far advanced as men's, and female literacy, while increasing steadily between 1750 and 1850 , still lagged behind male rates by as much as 25...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for self-improvement and as an expression of their own upward aspiration. Since Italy had enjoyed a higher level of urban *literacy than elsewhere in Europe during the early Renaissance and has never since lacked erudition nor scholars, to speak of the absence of a whole class of readers appears to be a contradiction. Nevertheless, this is what happened and, though the causes were many and complex, the key moment in this literacy-failure probably occurred in 1559 , when the first Roman * Index banned the Bible in Italian. Quite independently of the...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Bibel ( 1531 ). Froschauer was also long believed to be the printer of the Coverdale Bible ( 1535 ), although current scholarly opinion calls this into question. Along with humanism, the Reformation was thus the chief motor of the Swiss book trade in the early modern period. Literacy among the population remained low, however, and the proportion of people reading regularly was probably no higher than 2 per cent before and 4 per cent after the Reformation. Publishers therefore did not primarily aim at local sales, and the *book fairs in *Frankfurt , ...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...of the first alphabet is even more perplexing. That the alphabet reached the modern world via the ancient Greeks is well known—the word ‘alphabet’ comes from the first two of the Greek letters, alpha and beta—but we have no clear idea of how and when the alphabet appeared in Greece; how the Greeks thought of adding letters standing for the vowels as well as the consonants; and how, even more fundamentally, the idea of an alphabet occurred to the pre-Greek societies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean during the 2 nd millennium bc . The first well-attested...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...factors, chiefly the spread of literacy in urban centres. This process had begun in the 13 th century with the foundation of new lay schools next to the religious ones generally attached to cathedral chapters. In Italy, humanist schools were opened for scholars and scuole d’abbaco , where teaching was carried out in the vernacular, were founded to train merchants. New universities were established (ten in Germany between 1402 and 1498 ), and existing ones grew substantially. Participants in this spread of literacy were part of an expanded middle...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Australians had complex oral cultures stretching back tens of thousands of years, with hundreds of different languages. The subtleties of their encounters with European literacy have only recently begun to be explored. David Unaipon ( Native Legends , 1929 ) is justly famous as the first published Aboriginal author, but the first Aboriginal to engage actively with European literacy was the Eora leader Bennelong, who dictated a letter in 1796 . In the intervening years, Aboriginal publishing was predominately conducted by white missionaries and fell into...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...like Polish Latin printers, always faced competition from printers abroad, particularly in Italy, Bohemia, Germany, and Holland, since the importing of Hebrew books was unrestricted. As in much of Europe, the Reformation and Counter-Reformation facilitated the spread of literacy and increased demand for print. Printing spread beyond the capital city to small towns and villages where Protestant printers operated presses under the protection of local landowners. In Poland-Lithuania, Lutheranism held sway in the north, whereas Calvinism,...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...into Hungary’s most prestigious enterprise. As the smaller printing offices gradually replaced their obsolete equipment with modern machinery, they developed advertising techniques and widened their business networks. Towards the end of the 19 th century, the spread of *literacy increased the demand for books so rapidly that booksellers became publishers. They sponsored Hungarian literature and produced editions of national classics, large *press runs of popular fiction, cheap newspapers, series of complete works, and *translations of popular...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...proportion of titles printed in French grew rapidly, the balance relative to Latin tilting towards the vernacular in the 1560s . At the same time, humanism brought to France an unprecedented interest in Greek texts: Gilles de Gourmont printed the first French book in Greek in 1507 , while François I gathered at Fontainebleau the best collection of Greek MSS in western Europe, appointing as its curator Guillaume Budé. Between 1521 , when the Paris faculty of theology condemned Luther and obtained from the Paris parliament the right of control over all...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...oldest surviving scribal culture. 2 The impact of slavery and evangelism Seminal ‘movements’ in the development of African *print cultures include slavery, and the forces that opposed and finally achieved its abolition—Christian evangelism, and the mission-facilitated literacy it spread across broad swathes of the continent ( see 9 ). The arrival of print and the book produced ambivalent results in zones of cultural contact: facilitating productive engagements with modernity yet silencing ancient cultures; promoting new forms of knowledge while...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...correct reading. The absence of these in more mundane texts undoubtedly speeded up their production, and economized on the use of paper and ink; but it inevitably led to ambiguities in understanding and interpretation, and may have played some part in restricting functional literacy to an elite who knew the full phonetic and semantic values of the literary language through oral transmission. This may in turn have reinforced the still-prevailing division between literary Arabic and the unwritten colloquial dialects spoken by ordinary people. The presence of...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...religious writing, described on title-pages as ‘useful’ or ‘edifying’, was published. In the early 18 th century, one of the most widely read books was still Vom wahren Christenthum by the Pietist Johann Arndt , first published in 1605 . Yet, such reading ensured that literacy was reasonably widespread, especially in Protestant areas. Among the characteristic forms of publication in the 17 th century were popular, illustrated political *broadsides . Thousands still survive, not only dealing with the war (the demise of Tilly, for instance, or...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...at least the 5 th century bc . It is beyond the scope of this essay to treat the MS book in any detail, but it is essential to have an understanding of some of its basic features. The rise of heterodox movements such as Buddhism and Jainism triggered a movement from orality to literacy in India. Orthodox Hinduism set little store by writing, and its key texts, the Vedas, were memorized and transmitted orally ( see 2 ). A great deal of significance was attached to the spoken word and the performative aspects of the text. There are some technical terms in...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...distressing number of signs on mailboxes and entryways are printed, e.g., The Smith's [read The Smiths ]. The second unfortunate trend is to drop necessary apostrophes: there is a tendency to write the hotels many shops or Martins Pub . The only possible cure is increased literacy. Finally, U.S. place names drop possessive and associative apostrophes by government policy, so what was once Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, became Harpers Ferry. President Theodore Roosevelt charged the U.S. Board on Geographic Names in 1906 with standardizing place names....

View: