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Greek

Outside Greece, Greek was much less known in Europe in medieval times than was Latin, and was largely limited to scholarly circles interested in classical texts, theology, philosophy, and ...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,712 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ This entry includes two subentries, on the Greek language and on the pronunciation of ancient Greek .] The Greek Language Greek belongs to the Indo-European language family, a group of genetically related languages descended from a hypothesized late Neolithic parent language. Greek is one of the earliest attested Indo-European languages and is distinguished by a continuous history of almost three and a half millennia. The study of the Greek language is traditionally segmented into the following categories, which are only partially based on...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
27 words

...Greek . Opera in two acts by Turnage to a libretto by the composer and Jonathan Moore after Steven Berkoff's play Greek ( 1980 ) (Munich, 1988...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
28 words

... 1881: 21; Devon. English: ethnic name for someone from Greece, Middle English grek , greik . There seems also to have been some confusion with Gregg and its...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
123 words

... Outside Greece, Greek was much less known in Europe in medieval times than was Latin, and was largely limited to scholarly circles interested in classical texts, theology, philosophy, and science. Knowledge of Greek expanded from the mid-fifteenth century onwards with the development of the Humanist movement and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Church reformers too wished to read the New Testament in its original language, finding that it differed in important respects from the Latin translation, the Vulgate, authorized and propagated by the Roman Catholic...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
31 words

... Opera in 2 acts by Mark‐Anthony Turnage to lib. by composer and Jonathan Moore from S. Berkoff's play Greek . Comp. 1986–8 . Prod. Munich 1988 , Edinburgh Fest. 1988 , London (ENO) 1990...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
85 words

... Indo-European language spoken in Greece since c .2000 bc . In ancient Greece there were several dialects: Attic, spoken in Athens, is the most common in literary records. Greek was widely spoken in the Middle East during the Hellenistic Age . It was the official language of the Byzantine Empire, and it began to evolve into its modern form in c .1000 ad . After the fall of Byzantium, it developed two forms: ‘ demotiki ’, the spoken language also used in most literary forms, and ‘ katharevousa ’, used in official...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
132 words

... Greek it’s all Greek to me I can’t understand it at all. informal 🅘 Greek meaning ‘unintelligible language or gibberish’ is recorded from the 16th century. In Shakespeare ’s Julius Caesar , Casca, having noted that Cicero speaks Greek, adds ‘for mine own...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
230 words

... The language of the NT writings was a development of classical (Attic) Greek, much as modern English has changed since the publication of AV in 1611 . Greek had become a lingua franca through the civilized world in the 1st cent. and it was essential equipment for trade and communication. It was therefore the language used by the four * evangelists , and by * Josephus and * Philo . Even in Rome itself Greek was in general use, Latin being the language of the upper classes engaged in law and administration. Greek of this period is called koine , or...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

Thei Zervaki and Cathy K. Kaufman

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to fewer than two thousand. Astoria remains the largest Greek neighborhood in New York City (although its numbers have dwindled as economically successful Greeks have moved to more luxurious suburbs). Astoria remains one of the largest Greek enclaves outside of Greece. Diners, Restaurants, and Famous Greek Food Greek immigrants became well-known for opening diners, places where American coffee flows endlessly and breakfast is served all day: the television show Saturday Night Live immortalized the fictionalized Olympia diner in John Belushi and Dan...

Greek

Greek (biblical and patristic)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
231 words

... ( biblical and patristic ). The basis of the Greek of both the Septuagint and the NT is the Hellenistic Greek (known as the κοινή or ‘common’ dialect) which spread over the Near East as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great ( d. 323 bc ). This was a simplified form of Attic Greek, with some contributions from other dialects. There are, however, differences between writers. In the LXX, the Pentateuch and Is. are in literary Hellenistic Greek; the other Prophets, Pss., Chron., and most of Sam. and Kgs. are nearer to the vernacular. Some of...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Greek . A language of south-eastern Europe, a classical language of the Western world, and a member of the indo-european language family. It is commonly divided into Ancient or Classical Greek (often thought of as a dead language) and Modern Greek , the language of Greece, Cyprus (with Turkish), enclaves in the Soviet Union and the eastern Mediterranean, and Greek and Cypriot immigrants in Australia, Britain, Canada, and the US. Greek in English The influence of classical Greek on English has been largely indirect, through latin and ...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,599 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( Teodorsson 1978 , pp. 94–98). History of Greek. Included under the generic linguistic term Greek are several related dialects that can be traced back to a reconstructed Proto-Greek language, which in turn derives from the Indo-European family of languages. The Greeks called themselves Hellenes , recognizing mutual ties of history, language, and culture. They labeled everyone else as barbaroi (i.e., non-Greeks). It is uncertain just how the Romans came to call the Hellenes Graeci (a latinized form of the Greek term Graikoi , of uncertain etymology) and...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,044 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Koine Greek is used as a religious language by the Greek Orthodox Church. Greek, Cappadocian: formerly spoken in Greece. Dialects are Sille, Western Cappadocian, Pharasa. Closest to Pontic. Even more distinct from Standard Greek than Pontic is. Language was under extensive attrition from Turkish at the time of the population exchanges in 1922 and has now died out since the 1960s under pressure from Standard Greek. Pontic: also called Pontic Greek. 320,000 speakers in Greece, Georgia, USA, Canada, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. In Greece: 200,000...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... . The Greek of the texts from the Judean Desert, both literary and nonliterary, is the koine , a common language which replaced the variety of dialects of classical Greek, and can be seen as a transitional stage between classical and modern Greek. This is the language of Hellenistic prose, both pagan and Jewish, the Septuagint and other translations of the Hebrew scriptures, the New Testament, and the inscriptions; in its nonliterary form it is the language of the papyri and the ostraca. Following Alexander's conquests, Greek supplanted Official Aramaic as...

Greek

Greek   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
110 words

... Indo-European , forming a separate branch within the family. First attested in records of the 15th century bc , written in Linear B , and by a rich literature from early in the 1st millennium bc . Spoken widely, in a koine or ‘common’ language reflecting the Attic dialect of Athens, after the conquests of Alexander: later the official language throughout the eastern part of the Roman empire and its Byzantine successor. Now spoken mainly in Greece and in Cyprus. The alphabet was developed around the beginning of the 1st millennium bc . Derived from a...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,068 words

...to the living Koine is biblical Greek. Hardly a unity in itself, the language of the various Greek translations of the Hebrew scriptures ( see Septuagint ), the writings of the New Testament, and the Jewish and Christian apocrypha and pseudepigrapha does not constitute a special Jewish dialect of the Koine, much less a language outside the mainstream of the development of Greek. But like the papyri, ostraca, and inscriptions from Egypt subject to extensive bilingual interference from Egyptian (Coptic), biblical Greek in varying degrees preserves a...

greek

greek   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Internet (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

... The process of laying out text in an abstract way using simple lines or dots in order to gain a feel of how it would look on a page, either a textual page or a Web page . It can also describe the process of displaying a page using random words which have been cut and pasted and then replicated. The term is used in the printing trade and has been adopted by Web designers . It is sometimes used as a verb. See also lorem ipsum...

Greek

Greek ((biblical and patristic))   Reference library

Bogdan Tataru-Cazaban

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,466 words

...Modern Greek (1969), 11–58 (2nd edn, Cambridge, 1983, 1–52). M. Harl , G. Dorival , and O. Munnich , La Bible grecque des Septante: du judaïsme héllenistique au christianisme ancien (Paris, 1988). C. Dogniez , Bibliography of the Septuagint / Bibliographie de la Septante (1970–1993) (Vetus Testamentum, Supplements, 69; Leiden, 1995). M. Zerwick and M. Grosvenor , Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament (Rome, 1996). J. Swetnam and R. De Jesús Soto , Introduction to the Study of the New Testament Greek: Swetnam-Soto Greek English...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
64 words

... US frequency (2010): 1533 1 Americanized form of German Krieg and perhaps also of Dutch Kriek (see Creek ). 2 English (Devon): ethnic name for someone from Greece, Middle English grek , greik . There seems also to have been some confusion with Gregg and its variants. In North America, the English form of the surname has absorbed cognates from other languages, e.g. Italian Greco...

GREEK

GREEK   Reference library

Lambros Couloubaritsis

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
8,763 words

...Greek word. Ousia is not an artificial expression which first occurs in philosophy, but belongs to the everyday language and speech of the Greeks. Philosophy took up the word from its pre-philosophical usage. If this could happen so easily, and with no artificiality, then we must conclude that the pre-philosophical language of the Greeks was already philosophical . This is actually the case. The history of the basic word of Greek philosophy is an exemplary demonstration of the fact that the Greek language is philosophical , i.e., not that Greek is...

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