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Guam

Guam  

As a US military outpost, Guam is sensitive to changes in defence prioritiesGuam is one of the Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and the Philippines. The northern half of the island ...
Lincoln, Gaf

Lincoln, Gaf   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Gaf (7-crew heavy bomber [Mark 30]). Wingspan 120 feet; length 78 feet 4 inches; armament 2 × 20-mm cannon, 4 × 0.5-inch machine guns, 14,000 pounds bombs; maximum speed 305 m.p.h.; range 1470 miles; power 4 × Rolls Royce Merlin 1750 h.p. engines. The Lincoln was a development of the famous Lancaster bomber which was manufactured under licence in Australia by the Government Aircraft Factory and entered service with the RAAF in 1948 . No. 1 Squadron flew Lincolns on bombing raids during the Malayan Emergency between 1950 and 1958 . Fourteen...

Baltimore, Martin

Baltimore, Martin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Martin (4-crew bomber [Mark IV]). Wingspan 61 feet 4 inches; length 48 feet 6 inches; armament 8–14 × 0.303-inch machine guns, 2000 pounds bombs; maximum speed 308 m.p.h.; range 1082 miles; power 2 ×Wright 1660 h.p. engines. The Baltimore was an American-designed bomber ordered by the British government and used to equip squadrons serving in the Mediterranean. Two Australian squadrons, with crews trained through the Empire Air Training Scheme , used the Baltimore during the Second World War. No. 454 Squadron replaced its Bristol Blenheim bombers with...

Forward Defence

Forward Defence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...breech-loading guns, 1 × 0.45-inch Maxim machine gun. Completed 1892 . Milman Hill Fort 1 × 4.7-inch quick-firing gun. Under construction in 1901 . Townsville Magazine Island Fort 2 × 4.7-inch quick-firing guns, 1 × 0.45-inch Nordenfelt machine gun. Completed 1892 . Kissing Point Battery 2 × 6-inch breech-loading guns, 2 × 0.45-inch Nordenfelt machine guns. Completed 1891 . Brisbane Fort Lytton (13 miles below Brisbane, 2 miles above Moreton Bay) 2 × 6-inch breech-loading guns, 2 × 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading guns, 2 × 6-pounder quick-firing...

Hudson, Lockheed

Hudson, Lockheed   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Lockheed (5-crew medium bomber [Mark II]). Wingspan 65 feet 6 inches; length 44 feet; armament 5 × 0.303-inch machine guns, 750 pounds bombs; maximum speed 246 m.p.h.; range 2160 miles; power 2 × Pratt & Whitney Wasp 1050 h.p. engines. The Hudson was a military version of the Lockheed Model 14 passenger aircraft designed in 1938 for the British government as a maritime patrol and reconnaissance bomber replacement for the Avro Anson . The Australian government placed its first order of 100 Hudsons to replace its Ansons in late 1938 and they were the main...

Technology and Development in International Communication

Technology and Development in International Communication   Reference library

Nanette S. Levinson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,630 words

...technologies: open source technologies, mobile technologies, and social media/web 2.0 technologies. Research on open source technologies in the context of communication and development highlights ease of access and lowering of costs for using ICTs in developing nations. Some research focuses on government roles in selecting technology standards for acquisitions and operations in their purview. For example, there is research ( Ghosh 2004 ) on Extramadura, Spain where the government selected open source as opposed to Microsoft technology. (Such decision-making...

Power and Space in Electronic Communications

Power and Space in Electronic Communications   Reference library

Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,018 words

...Inquiry 29, 336–68. Chan, B. (2006) Virtual Communities and Chinese National Identity. Journal of Chinese Overseas 2, 1–32. Choudrie, J. , and Lee, H. (2004) Broadband Development in South Korea: Institutional and Cultural Factors. European Journal of Information Systems 13, 103–14. Ciborra, C. , and Navarra, D. (2005) Good Governance, Development Theory, and Aid Policy: Risks and Challenges of E-Government in Jordan. Information Technology for Development 11, 141–59. Crang, M. , Crosbie, T. , and Graham, S. (2006) Variable Geometries...

Migration and Development

Migration and Development   Reference library

Philip Martin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,834 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Grouped By per Capita GDP ($) Ratio High-Low Ratio High-Middle Low Middle High 1975 85 4.1 2.1% 1 150 750 6200 41 8 1985 105 4.8 2.2% 2 270 1290 11,810 44 9 1990 154 5.3 2.9% 10 350 2220 19,590 56 9 1995 164 5.7 2.9% 2 430 2390 24,930 58 10 2000 175 6.1 2.9% 2 420 1970 27,510 66 14 2005 191 6.4 3.0% 3 580 2640 35,131 61 13 Note : The 1990 migrant stock was raised from 120 million to 154 million,...

Land Reform and Landless Movements

Land Reform and Landless Movements   Reference library

Wendy W. Wolford and Timothy Gorman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,208 words

...currently in draft phase. 0.403 (1.6%) 0.034 (1.6%) Mau Mau Rebellion (1950s–60s), Kenya Land Alliance Zimbabwe 1980–present Post-independence Mugabe government initially pursues a willing-seller/willing-buyer approach. Facing donor withdrawal and political challenges from below, ruling ZANU-PF inaugurates “Fast Track Resettlement” scheme in 2000, sanctioning land occupations and abandoning market model for confiscatory redistribution. 1980–2000: 3.5 (∼2%) 2000–present: 9 (5%) 1980–2000: 0.072 (∼4%) 2000–present: 0.190 (∼10%) ZANU-PF, Zimbabwe...

Gulf War, Second

Gulf War, Second   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,120 words
Illustration(s):
2

...TG 633.0—National Headquarters; TG 633.1—Fleet Element consisting of HMA Ships Kanimbla , Darwin and Anzac , and Clearance Diving Team 3; TG 633.2—Maritime Surveillance Element consisting of an AP-3C Orion detachment and 381 ECSS; TG 633.3—Special Forces Element consisting of detachments drawn from the SASR, 4 RAR (Cdo) and IRR; a CH-47 Chinook detachment; and a Combat Services Support Group; and TG 633.4—Combat Air Wing Element consisting of an F/A-18 Hornet squadron, C-130H Hercules detachment and 382 ECSS and 386 ECSS. The role of TG 633.0—the...

eastern front

eastern front (1914–18)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,298 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rarely refused requests to put pressure on the Central Powers with offensives. These were costly and, against the Germans, ineffective, at least in the short term. The Tsar's armies suffered, partly as a result, the heaviest combat fatalities: 2.3 million Russians, compared to 2.0 million Germans, 1.9 million French, and 0.8 million British. It is irrelevant that Russian per capita losses were lower. In the end the defeat of all three major eastern front combatants clouded the issue. The eastern front had a decisive impact on the course of WWI, although it was...

International Organization and Human Development

International Organization and Human Development   Reference library

David C. Ellis

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,913 words

...states and international organizations to recipient governments; and (2) technical cooperation ( TC ) whereby foreign experts would, ideally, train domestic labor to become competent and self-sufficient across the broad spectrum of governmental and industrial occupations (see Klingebiel 1999 :36–8). The common thread binding ODA and TC was the fact that such assistance was typically channeled through government offices to enhance state capacity. Underlying this pattern were the assumptions that governments were generally concerned about all their citizens...

Science And Technology

Science And Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...two stern-wheel gunboats for use by the New Zealand government in the Maori Wars and five armed schooners for the RN for patrol work in the South Sea islands. These shipbuilding achievements did not involve new technology but two inventions of the late nineteenth century did—the Brennan torpedo and Alcock's range-setter and fire-control device. Facilities for further research and development for Brennan's dirigible torpedo, patented in England in 1877 , were lacking in Australia, but the British government invited Brennan to England where, after five years...

Humanitarian Intervention and International Security

Humanitarian Intervention and International Security   Reference library

Taylor B. Seybolt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,861 words

...thereby meeting the requirement of Article 2(4) for the use of force. The legal precedent for humanitarian intervention, however, was not advanced significantly by Somalia or subsequent cases, because each case was declared to be “exceptional” and not the beginning of a new legal rule. The exceptionalism of humanitarian intervention was pushed further by the 1999 NATO intervention in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to protect ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo from the Serbian government of Slobodan Milosevic. NATO violated international...

Population Movements and Security

Population Movements and Security   Reference library

Jack A. Goldstone

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,696 words
Illustration(s):
1

...generations of young people approaching their peak earning years and saving for retirement will cease as well. When European populations were growing at 1 or 2 percent per year, even modest increases in real income per capita, of 2 percent per year, provided overall growth levels of 3 to 4 percent per year or better. With European populations instead shrinking by 0.3 to 0.5 percent per year, the same 2 percent increase in real income per capita will yield only 1.7 to 1.5 percent in overall growth. In other words, even if Europe’s income per capita growth...

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Hart

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,333 words

...At www.oecd.org/topic/0,3373,en_2649_37441_1_1_1_1_37441,00.html , accessed Aug. 2009. This site is dedicated to the OECD’s work on ICTs, and particularly its research on the diffusion of broadband networks. Howard Rheingold . At www.rheingold.com , accessed Aug. 2009. Everything you ever wanted to know about the author of Virtual Community and Smart Mobs . Global E-Government, 2006 . At www.insidepolitics.org/egovt06int.pdf , accessed Aug. 2009. This is Darrell West ’s attempt to systematically compare national governmental websites across a wide...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Objection . Whenever government in America has employed compulsory military training or service, it has been confronted by those who, on principle, refuse to bear arms. The early colonists included many members of pacifist Protestant sects— Quakers , Mennonites, Brethren—who believed the Bible and the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth prohibited them from participating in war or engaging in any violence against other human beings. Colonial officials fined them for refusing to serve in the militia, but since they were economically productive and...

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics   Reference library

Lars Rensmann and Jennifer Miller

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1.9 6.6 7.8–9.9 11.6 12.0 LPF (Netherlands) – – – 11.35 – ** RMZ (Czech Republic) – 6.0 8.0 –3.9 1.0 0.15 Ataka (Bulgaria) – – – 8.9 – VMRO – BND (Bulgaria) – 6.5 9.4 5.7 *** – FN (France) 9.7 12.6 15.0 11.3 4.3 BNP (Great Britain) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.20.7 No election MIÉP (Hungary) – 1.58 5.5 4.4 2.2 LPR (Poland) – – – 7.9– 8.0 1.3 Samoobrona (Poland) 2.8 0.1 10.2– 11.3 2.5 PUNR (Romania) – 7.9 4.4...

International Organization and Bureaucracy

International Organization and Bureaucracy   Reference library

James P. Muldoon Jr.

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,452 words

...Y. , (eds.) (2003) Rethinking International Organizations: Pathology and Promise . New York: Berghahn Books. Eagleton, C. (1932) International Government . New York: Ronald Press. Elliott, L. (2000) Multilateral thinking. Guardian , Nov. 29. At www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,404230,00.html , accessed Sept. 20, 2010. Farazmand, A. , (ed.) (2002) Modern Organizations: Theory and Practice , 2nd edn. Westport: Praegar. Gati, T.T. , (ed.) (1983) The US, The UN, and the Management of Global Change . New York: New York University Press. Gould...

International Political Economy: Overview and Conceptualization

International Political Economy: Overview and Conceptualization   Reference library

Renée Marlin-Bennett

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,828 words

... World Politics 32 (3), 357–405. Hamilton, A. (1913) Report on Manufacture: Communication to the House of Representatives. In Senate Document 172 [No. 31], United States Department of the Treasury, published by the Government Printing Office. At http:/books.google.com/books?id=gCk5AAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false , accessed Aug. 9, 2009. Originally published 1791. Hayek, F.A. von (1994) The Road to Serfdom , 50th anniversary edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heckscher, E . (1935) Mercantilism , trans...

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