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Television

Television   Reference library

Hussein Amin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,485 words

...and Saudi Arabia. By the 1960s governments in the region, having realized television's potential to influence and mobilize the population, started operating television as monopolies. In almost all countries in the region, television services were brought under the control of ministries of information or other government authorities. Television broadcasting in the region functioned under an authoritarian system of broadcasting, with terrestrial networks owned and operated by government bodies that used the medium more as government propaganda machines than as...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...state and local governments and consequently was uneven. In 1842 , Massachusetts became the first state to commence comprehensive registration of births, deaths, and marriages. Quality was good by about 1855 . Several states followed suit, but in 1900 the Death Registration Area was formed with only ten states and the District of Columbia . The entire United States was not covered until 1933 . By the middle of the nineteenth century there is enough information to make reasonable national estimates of life expectancy. By 1850 , e(0) for the white...

Prohibition

Prohibition   Reference library

Lisa McGirr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...repeal of national prohibition and effectively ending the radical experiment. Prohibition’s repeal did not signify a broad rejection of regulation by the federal government. Rather, the great debate over the merits of Prohibition in public and private discourse throughout the decade helped lay the ground for a greater legitimacy of state authority: the debate did not so much challenge the government’s right to regulate as simply raise important questions over what its parameters should be. The experience of national prohibition had highlighted the real danger...

Arab Spring

Arab Spring   Reference library

Farhad Khosrokhavar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,193 words

...autocratic governments, women were dedicated agents, recognized as almost equal with men in their fight against oppressive regimes. This period was characterized by the “Tahrir youth” type of revolutionary, whose main features were egalitarianism, secularity, and tolerance. The second period, beginning after the overthrow of the authoritarian governments, witnessed a dramatic change: the advent of the Salafīs as political forces, seriously threatening the emancipation of women. The latter's number in the parliament dwindled in Egypt to less than 2 percent in...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Naysan Rafati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,023 words

...not sufficiently address, and may even compound, existing problems. Although there has been a decline in birth rates among Muslim women in recent years, from 4.7 in 2000 to 3.5 in 2011 , this remains higher than other religious communities, both Arab (2.0 among Christians and 2.3 among Druze) and Jewish (3.0). At the legal level, Israel's judicial system has secular as well as religious courts, with the latter including Muslim Sharīʿah courts. The Sharīʿah courts deal with personal status issues, such as marriage, though they have been critiqued by...

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans   Reference library

G. Reginald Daniel and Josef Castañeda-Liles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...16 percent). As in 2000 , the percentage of Latinos who identified themselves as having multiple races was higher than that of non-Latinos (6 percent versus 2.3 percent), though the percentage of Latinos who identified themselves as “some other race” declined from 42 percent in 2000 to 37 percent in 2010 ; the percentage of non-Latinos identifying themselves as “some other race” remained steady at 0.2 percent. Aside from U.S. Census and other large-scale findings, the formation of multiracial identities has been visible in the creation of student groups on...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

Sarah F. Fischer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,818 words

...to around 0.5 percent. In the 1980s, the percentage increased slightly to 0.88–1.34 percent; in the 1990s, women's representation increased to 2–4 percent. In 2002 , the number of female MPs was around 4 percent, then rose to around 8 percent in 2007, and almost doubled, to 14 percent, in 2011 . In 2012 , women constituted 30.5 percent of BDP MPs, 14 percent of CHP MPs, 13.8 percent of AKP MPs, and 5.6 percent of Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (Nationalist Action Party) MPs. On the local level, in 2012, 1 out of 80 governors were women, 26 out of 2,924 mayors...

Minorities

Minorities   Reference library

Earle Waugh and Dženita Karić

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,564 words

...today exist on all continents and carve their presence into the social, political, religious, and cultural lives of most countries in the world. According to Pew Research Center statistics, there were 2.6 million Muslims in the United States (0.8 percent of the overall population) in 2010, 44.1 million in Europe (6 percent), and 23.3 million in China (2 percent). India, China, Nigeria (75 million), and Ethiopia (28 million) are the only non-Muslim countries at present that have more than 20 million Muslims. From one point of view, the emergence or...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

..., eds. Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity within Unity . Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1998. Bordat, Stephanie Willman , and Saida Kouzzi . “The Challenge of Implementing Morocco's New Personal Status Law.” Arab Reform Bulletin 2, no. 8. (2004): 8–9. An initial assessment of the challenges to local NGOs and the government in applying the Moroccan Family Code just after its promulgation. Bordat, Stephanie Willman , and Saida Kouzzi . “The Maghreb: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.” In Africa: A Practical Guide for Global Health Workers , edited by Laurel...

Women and Social Protest

Women and Social Protest   Reference library

Nadjib Ala’I, Natana J. DeLong-Bas, and Olga Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,860 words

.... London: SAGE, 1997. Online Resources Hauslohner, Abigail . “Tragic Symbol: Egypt's Headscarf Martyr.” Time , July 12, 2009, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1910030,00.html. “Indonesia Group Raps Saudi Beheading.” PressTV, 29 June 2011, http://www.presstv.ir/detail/186737.html . MR. “Saudi Salafi Scholars: Women Not Allowed Near the Kaaba.” Mujahideen Ryder (blog), September 2, 2006, http://www.mujahideenryder.net/2006/09/02/saudi-salafi-scholars-women-not-allowed-near-the-kaaba/ . “Presiden SBY Mempesona di Sidang ILO-Swiss, Sampaikan 6...

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking   Reference library

Anna Piela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,724 words

...from 0.38 percent to 46.9 percent; in Qatar from 4 percent to 82 percent; in the Palestinian West Bank from 1.7 percent to 58.9 percent; in Saudi Arabia, from 8.2 percent to 43.6 percent. Penetration of ICT in the Middle East is slightly higher than the world average (35.6 percent compared to 32.6 percent). By comparison, in the same period, the percentage of ICT users in Afghanistan grew from less than 0.001 percent to 4.2 percent, in Bangladesh from less than 0.01 percent to 3.5 percent, in Indonesia from 1 percent to 22.4 percent, in Egypt from 0.6 to...

Financial Institutions

Financial Institutions   Reference library

Yvonne Corcoran-Nantes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,608 words

... http://www.irep.iium.edu.my/4261/ . Namazi, Mahmood . “Bayt al-Mal and the Distribution of Zakat.” Message of Thaqalayn 11, no. 2 (2010): 75–84. Naqvi, Syed Mawab Haider . Perspectives on Morality and Human Well-Being: A Contribution to Islamic Economics . Leicester, U.K.: Islamic Foundation, 2003. Power, Carla . “Middle East: Women's Money talks.” TIME Magazine , July 30, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1827866,00.html . Reuters-Dubai . “Growth in Mideast Women-Only Bank Branches & Funds.” Al Arabiya News , October 24, 2010. ...

Family Planning

Family Planning   Reference library

Donna Lee Bowen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,118 words

...expected to grow at around twice the rate of non-Muslims for the next twenty years if current trends continue. By 2030, Muslim populations are predicted to drop to around replacement rates (2.2 total fertility rate, or TFR, meaning the number of children born to a woman in her lifetime), while non-Muslim states’ total fertility rates are projected to be well below that, 0.7 on average. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, populations in Muslim countries grew slowly, as high birth rates were offset by high mortality rates. Following World War II and...

Cinema

Cinema   Reference library

Stefanie Van de Peer, Sara Saljoughi, Lamia Ben Youssef, and Eylem Atakav

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
10,546 words

...Eastern/North African Film and Video.” Jouvert: A Journal of Postcolonial Studies , 1997. http://english.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v1i1/SHOHAT.HTM/ . Slimani, Leila . “Les artistes tunisiens disent: ‘Vive la révolution!’ ” Jeune Afrique , March 2, 2011. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/Article/ARTJAJA2612p082085.xml0/actualite-afriqueles-artistes-tunisiens-disent-vive-la-revolution.html/ . Young, Deborah . “It Was Better Tomorrow ( Ya man Aach ): Venice Review.” The Hollywood Reporter , September 7, 2012. ...

Rural Life and Society

Rural Life and Society   Reference library

Ginette Aley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...1929 stock market crash, agricultural exports and demand fell further, illustrated by the drop in the average price of wheat: between 1929 and 1932 the price fell from $1.05 to $0.38 per bushel. Many lost their farms. Some sought action through protests like the Farmers’ Holiday movement. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies offered hope and change in government involvement in agriculture and rural life. With mixed results, the Agricultural Adjustment Act advocated agricultural recovery both through acreage reductions and price supports and...

Slave Trades

Slave Trades   Reference library

Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Rebecca L. Hall, and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...states, 44.4 percent of those to Carolina and 62.0 percent of those to Georgia brought Africans from Greater Senegambia. These gross, static figures are impressive enough. But when the calculations for the British colonies and subsequent United States are broken down over time and place, a wave pattern emerges that clusters Africans from Greater Senegambia. For Carolina, 50.4 percent of all Atlantic slave-trade voyages to that colony entered into the TAST1 arrived between 1751 and 1775 , with 100 (35.2 percent) coming from Senegambia and 58 (20.4...

An Overview

An Overview  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...states, 44.4 percent of those to Carolina and 62.0 percent of those to Georgia brought Africans from Greater Senegambia. These gross, static figures are impressive enough. But when the calculations for the British colonies and subsequent United States are broken down over time and place, a wave pattern emerges that clusters Africans from Greater Senegambia. For Carolina, 50.4 percent of all Atlantic slave-trade voyages to that colony entered into the TAST1 arrived between 1751 and 1775 , with 100 (35.2 percent) coming from Senegambia and 58 (20.4...

Twentieth Century and Beyond

Twentieth Century and Beyond  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...Ruggles, J. Trent Alexander, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Matthew B. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 5.0 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2010) Miriam King, Steven Ruggles, J. Trent Alexander, Sarah Flood, Katie Genadek, Matthew B. Schroeder, Brandon Trampe, and Rebecca Vick, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 3.0 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2010). Ferrie, Joseph P., ed. “Internal Migration.” In Historical Statistics of the United States , edited by Susan...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...Jesus’s leadership in part as political leadership. He is hailed as a king (e.g., Matt 2:2 ; John 1:49 ; 6:15 ; 12:13 ) and is executed under the charge “the king of the Jews” ( Matt 27:37 ; Mark 15:26 ; Luke 23:38 ; John 19:19 ). Many interpreters read elements of Jesus’s ministry as making political claims. For example, Jesus’s casting a “legion” into the sea in the story of the Gerasene demoniac is often viewed as a critique of the Roman government, whose armies were divided into “legions” ( Mark 5:1–20 ). Many interpreters understand the...

Internal Migration

Internal Migration   Reference library

Martha K. Robinson, Malcolm J. Rohrbough, James N. Gregory, and Steven A. Reich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...peoples, and accept a republican form of government. In exchange, the French retained their local administrative unit, the parish, and kept their own legal system, civil law. Both survive in Louisiana in the twenty-first century. The War of 1812 had important expansionist dimensions. In the East, this was a war over neutral rights at sea; in the West, it was a war against American Indians. The diplomatic close of the war, the 1814 treaty of Ghent, cleared the way for American expansion as the British government gave up its generation-long struggle to...

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