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Secure Communities

Secure Communities   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,311 words

... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AZ 12/23/2008 1,256,261 22,786 72,678 95,464 7,317 3,238 7,611 101 3,558 1,265 23,090 CA 5/26/2009 4,102,085 85,256 281,397 366,653 27,646 14,951 22,841 1,467 15,928 3,739 86,572 CO 2/15/2011 212,242 2,980 7,507 10,487 482 416 484 10 103 18 1,513 CT 6/29/2010 94,400 460 4,385 4,845 72 55 89 46 76 22 360 DC 6/5/2012 9,451 93 333 426 2 2 2 1 0 2 9 DE 4/20/2010 80,554 230 1,307 1,537 74 32 49 5 34 4 198 FL 1/22/2009 2,542,492 39,873 122,516 162,389 3,162 2,188 3,544 1,407 2,649 1,263 14,213 GA 11/17/2009 872,436 6,099 35,395 41,494 1,602 1,441 2,620...

Identity, Politics of

Identity, Politics of   Reference library

Suzanne Oboler, Deena J. González, Frances R. Aparicio, María de los Angeles Torres, and Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,860 words

...2.6 708,741 2.0 143,660 25.4     Other Central American 7,010 0.0 93,234 0.3 86,224 1,230.0 South American 1,035,602 4.7 1,419,979 4.0 384,377 37.1     Argentinean 100,921 0.5 107,275 0.3 6,354 6.3     Bolivian 38,073 0.2 45,188 0.1 7,115 18.7     Chilean 68,799 0.3 73,951 0.2 5,152 7.5     Colombian 378,726 1.7 496,748 1.4 118,022 31.2     Ecuadorian 191,198 0.9 273,013 0.8 81,815 42.8     Paraguayan 6,662 0.0 8,929 0.0 2,267 34.0     Peruvian 175,035 0.8 247,601 0.7 72,566 41.5     Uruguayan 21,996 0.1 20,242 0.1 −1,754 −8.0     Venezuelan 47,997 0.2...

Race and Racialization

Race and Racialization   Reference library

Jorge Duany

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,875 words

...by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2010 (in percentages) Non-Hispanics All Hispanics Mexicans Puerto Ricans Cubans White 76.2 53.0 52.8 53.1 53.1 Black or African American 14.6 2.5 0.9 8.7 4.6 American Indian or Alaska Native 0.9 1.4 1.4 0.9 0.2 Asian 5.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.2 Native Hawaiian and other  Pacific Islander 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 Some other race 0.2 36.7 39.5 27.8 5.8 Two or more races 2.3 6.0 5.0 8.7 3.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Ennis et al., The Hispanic Population: 2010 ; Humes et al., Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010; US...

Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

John Majewski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,323 words

...modestly by modern standards, increasing anywhere from 0.3 to 0.6 percent per year. Yet colonists built an increasingly sophisticated commercial infrastructure that resulted in the growth of towns and cities. Such development was particularly important in New England and the Middle Colonies, where cities became major market centers. By 1770 such cities as Boston , New York , and Philadelphia provided an impressive array of mercantile services that induced future economic growth. Government policy, both in Britain and in the colonies, also aided...

Farm Workers

Farm Workers   Reference library

Philip Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,100 words

...is to have the US government open border gates to allow the entry of newcomers willing to accept farm wages and conditions or tolerate unauthorized migration. Worker advocates have a different starting point—“bad” farm labor market outcomes such as low wages, poor working conditions, and poor housing. They ask government to (1) raise wages by increasing the minimum wage or step up labor law enforcement and (2) create programs to assist poor farmworkers and their families with housing, training, health, and other services. The US government has responded to...

Nicaraguan Organizations

Nicaraguan Organizations   Reference library

Victoria González-Rivera and Richard Grossman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,210 words

...received asylum. This is not to say that all Nicaraguan applications for political asylum during this period were successful. In fact, only 27 percent of applicants obtained asylum. However, for Salvadorans and Guatemalans, who were fleeing governments backed by the United States, the approval rates were 2.5 percent and 2.0 percent respectively. In 1986 the US Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act. It benefited many Nicaraguans because it allowed immigrants who had arrived before 1982 to remain in the country legally. However, those who had...

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936   Reference library

Hector Cordero-Guzman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,602 words

...decreased from a high of 20.7 percent in 1984 to 15 percent by 1988 , and economic growth resurfaced (3.5 percent in 1986 , 4.2 percent in 1987 , and 4.4 percent in 1988 ) after real losses between 1981 and 1986 . These economic factors and others of a social and political nature favored the reelection of the pro-commonwealth governor in 1988 . Throughout the period from 1984 to 1992 , the pro-commonwealth government increasingly stressed the uniqueness of Section 936 as a tool for economic development while seeking to firmly anchor the Puerto...

Brazilians

Brazilians   Reference library

Ana Christina Braga Martes and Sarah Faleiros

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,714 words

...(1), Hawaii (1), Iowa (1), Kansas (1), Louisiana (1), Missouri (1), New Mexico (1), North Carolina (1), Rhode Island (1), and Tennessee (0) ( Coentro, 2011 ). Articulation and Mobilization of Brazilians Abroad and the Brazilian Government’s Actions Until the mid-1990s, the Brazilian government paid little attention to its citizens living abroad, and especially little to low-skilled migrant laborers. The situation began to change during President Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s administration because of the growing number of Brazilians who had started to emigrate in...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers II

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
620 words

...(Quakers), who be-lieved that biblical commandments and Jesus’s teachings prohibited them from engaging in war or any violence against other human beings. Since these religious faiths were comparatively small, economically productive, and otherwise law abiding, most colonial governments eventually exempted them from bearing arms. Some objectors were forced into militia service during the Revolutionary War, but several of the new states recognized religious conscientious objection. Indeed, James Madison sought to include protection for religious objectors in...

REAGAN TAX CUTS

REAGAN TAX CUTS  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...personal tax rates to eliminate the automatic increase in revenues generated by bracket creep. Influenced by Laffer-curve theory that tax reduction would broaden the economic base, Reagan was discomfited by the explosion of the deficit from 2.6 percent gross domestic prod-uct (GDP) in fiscal year (FY) 1981 to 6.0 percent in FY 1983 . This expansion was primarily caused by the severe recession of 1981 – 1982 , but ERTA’s large revenue costs underwrote large deficits into the recovery cycle. Some Democrats suspected that Reagan had deliberately...

Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases   Reference library

John R. Wunder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
896 words

...( 1884 ), argued 30 October 1884 , decided 8 December 1884 by a vote of 7 to 2, Harlan for the Court, Field and Bradley in dissent; United States v. Jung Ah Lung , 124 U.S. 621 ( 1888 ), argued 9 January 1888 , decided 13 February 1888 by a vote of 6 to 3, Blatchford for the Court, Harlan in dissent; Chae Chan Ping v. United States (also recorded as The Chinese Exclusion Case), 130 U.S. 581 ( 1889 ), argued 28 March 1889 , decided 13 May 1889 by a vote of 9 to 0, Field for the Court; and Fong Yue Ting v. United States , Wong Quan v. United...

Taxes

Taxes   Reference library

Gordon Morris Bakken and Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,058 words

...tax revolt. The ballot measure set real estate property values at 1975 – 1976 market value for tax purposes, limited real estate taxes to 1 percent of the value, limited tax increases to 2 percent per year, provided for a full reassessed value base at sale price for new owners, required a two-thirds vote for legislative tax increases, and made local government tax increases subject to two-thirds approval of eligible voters. Howard Jarvis and Paul Gann were the architects of this crusade. Jarvis, the chair of the United Organization of Taxpayers, had...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz and Phillip Granberry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,525 words

...Rate (%) 1980 1990 2000 2010 United States, overall 12.1 13.2 11.9 15.3 Non-Hispanic white population 8.6 9 7.9 7.1 Non-Hispanic black population 28.7 29.8 24.1 27.1 Non-Hispanic Asian population 12.7 14.6 12.1 12.5 Latina/Latino population 23.5 24.4 22.3 24.8 Source : 1980 , 1990 , 2000 , 2010 US Census of Population. Table 2. Latina and Latino Poverty Rates, 2010 Poverty Rate (%) Overall Latina/Latino population 24.8 Mexican 26.6 Puerto Rican 26.7 Cuban 17.5 Dominican 26.3 South Americans 14.0 Central American 21.5 Source: 2010 US Census of...

Environmental Policy

Environmental Policy   Reference library

Paul Charles Milazzo, Donald T. Critchlow, Mark J. Rozell, and Donald T. Critchlow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
5,203 words

...maintained that implementation of existing laws exposed the complexities of combating water pollution. Ruckelshaus asked Congress for more time to gather scientific data and conduct analyses. Congress rejected Ruckelshaus ’s request. Muskie introduced a bill on 2 November 1971 , which passed 86 to 0 in the Senate and 380 to 14 in the House. President Richard M. Nixon vetoed the bill as too costly. Both houses of Congress voted to override the veto. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as an amendment to a 1948 clean water law. This...

Public Policy

Public Policy   Reference library

Adela de la Torre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,728 words

... http://www.cdc.gov/men/lcod/2009/LCODhispanicmales2009.pdf . Table 3. Top Ten Leading Causes of Deaths for Latinas Rank Female Percentage 1 Cancer 22.3 2 Heart disease 21.0 3 Stroke 6.0 4 Diabetes 4.9 5 Unintentional injuries 4.4 6 Alzheimer’s disease 3.2 7 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 3.2 8 Influenza and pneumonia 2.8 9 Kidney disease 2.4 10 Chronic liver disease 2.1 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Leading Causes of Death for Hispanic Females.” http://www.cdc.gov/women/lcod/2009/09_hispanic_women.pdf . For both men and women, a...

Tucsonians for a Clean Environment

Tucsonians for a Clean Environment   Reference library

Mary S. Pardo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
817 words

...wells that supplied water to the south side. The dumping of untreated trichloroethylene had been taking place for nearly thirty years, from 1951 until 1977 . In response to residents’ concerns about the concentration of illnesses in the community that measured 0.75 mile (3.2 km) by 5 miles (8 km), the Pima County health director of the Arizona Department of Health agreed to conduct a study. The report concluded that there was no connection between the illnesses and exposure to the toxic plume. Instead, the report blamed the high incidence of...

National Security

National Security   Reference library

Roberto Lovato

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,434 words

...Diversity Commission, 2011. Moore, Solomon . “Study Shows Sharp Rise in Latino Federal Convicts.” New York Times , 18 February 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19immig.html?_r=0 . National Security Archive . “The Interrogation Documents: Debating U.S. Policy and Methods.” Washington, D.C.: National Security Archive, 13 July 2004. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB127/ . Pinkerton, James . “Hispanics Hold 52 Percent of Border Patrol Jobs.” Houston Chronicle , 29 December 2008. http://www.chron.com/news/article/Hispanics-hold-...

Asian Latina/os

Asian Latina/os   Reference library

Evelyn Hu-DeHart

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,335 words

...explored from the Asian perspective in the census. In 2010 fully 15.3 percent of Asians chose to express their multiracialism, much higher than the 6.0 percent of Hispanics who did so, with blacks at 7.4 percent and whites at only 3.2 percent. Furthermore, while 52.1 percent of multiracial Asians identified non-Hispanic white as their other heritage, and only 6.0 percent identified non-Hispanic black and 5.2 percent non-Hispanic native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, an impressive 20.9 percent—598,146 individuals—indicated they were Hispanic or Latino...

Southeast, The

Southeast, The   Reference library

Elaine C. Lacy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,985 words

...licenses. As reported by the Pew Hispanic Center in 2010 , the relatively large percentage of eligible voters who are Latinos in Delaware (3.6 percent), Maryland (2.9 percent), and the District of Columbia likely contributes to efforts to meet the needs of Latinos. Percentages for the other states are as follows: West Virginia, 0.8 percent; South Carolina, 1.3 percent; North Carolina, 2.1 percent; and Virginia, 3.3 percent. Despite a relatively large percentage of eligible voters who are Latino in Virginia, however, anti-immigration efforts have been...

Labor Market, Latinos and Latinas in the

Labor Market, Latinos and Latinas in the   Reference library

Elaine Levine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,847 words

...25.2 to 43.7 percent, in cut and sew apparel it rose from 22.6 to 39.6 percent, in services to buildings and dwellings the increment was from 18 to 33.1 percent, in laundry and dry cleaning services it grew from 14.6 to 31.2 percent, and in services to private households it rose from 17.6 percent to 34.8 percent. In food processing the percentage of Latino/as employed rose from 14.1 percent to 26.5 percent and was even greater in certain subsectors such as animal slaughter and processing (from 17.0 to 35.2 percent), and bakeries, except retail (from 13.0 to...

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