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Barron v. Baltimore

Barron v. Baltimore  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• 7 Pet. 243 (1833)• Vote: 7–0• For the Court: Marshall• 7 Pet. 243 (1833)• Vote: 7–0• For the Court: MarshallJohn Barron owned docks and warehouses ...
Ware v. Hylton

Ware v. Hylton  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• 3 Dall. 199 (1796)• Vote: 4–0• For the Court: seriatim opinions by Chase, Paterson, Wilson, and Cushing• Not participating: Ellsworth and Iredell• 3 Dall. 199 (1796)• Vote: 4–0[...]
Whitney v. California

Whitney v. California  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• 274 U.S. 357 (1927)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: Sanford• Concurring: Brandeis and Holmes• 274 U.S. 357 (1927)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: Sanford• Concurring: Brandeis and Holmes[...]
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States  

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Overview Page
• 379 U.S. 241 (1964)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: Clark• Concurring: Black, Douglas, Goldberg• 379 U.S. 241 (1964)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: Clark• Concurring: Black, Douglas, Goldberg[...]
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co.

Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co.  

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Overview Page
• 118 U.S. 394 (1886)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: Harlan• 118 U.S. 394 (1886)• Vote: 9–0• For the Court: HarlanThe state of California tried to ...
Cohens v. Virginia

Cohens v. Virginia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• 6 Wheat. 264 (1821)• Vote: 6–0• For the Court: MarshallTwo brothers, Philip and Mendes Cohen, were charged with violating a Virginia law by selling lottery tickets within the state. ...
Patrick Joseph Buchanan

Patrick Joseph Buchanan  

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Overview Page
(b. Washington, DC, 2 Nov. 1938)US; politician Born into a large Roman Catholic family of Irish origins, Buchanan was educated at Georgetown University and the Columbia School of Journalism. His ...
Welfare state

Welfare state   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,954 words

...scale of funding and the scope of these services has tended to increase steadily throughout the twentieth century. In 1965 Australian social security and welfare assistance payments accounted for just 3.2 per cent of Australia's Gross Domestic Product ( GDP )—a standard measure of the value of the entire Australian economy. By 1980 that had risen to 6.0 per cent of GDP and by 1999 Australian social security and welfare assistance payments represented 6.7 per cent of GDP. The social significance of these expenditures is hardly less striking. More...

Development Trajectories in Africa

Development Trajectories in Africa   Reference library

Richard E. Mshomba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,074 words

...Namibia −2.13 0.68 3.37 2.58 Niger a −1.22 −2.74 −1.62 0.83 2.00 Nigeria 2.11 −3.12 −0.64 6.39 0.93 Rwanda 2.30 −1.35 1.44 5.62 4.62 São Tomé and Príncipe 2.86 2.16 Senegal −0.90 −0.39 0.37 1.36 1.45 Seychelles 6.09 2.28 2.72 1.13 4.41 Sierra Leone 0.06 −1.49 −2.87 3.16 2.83 Somalia a −2.04 0.36 South Africa 0.69 −0.79 −0.14 2.24 0.49 South Sudan −25.91 Sudan 0.56 −0.33 2.78 3.97 4.60 Swaziland 3.19 5.60 0.83 2.27 0.97 Tanzania 0.08 3.51 3.60 Togo 1.81 −2.15 −0.19 −0.53 2.27 Uganda 3.18 3.75 1.82 Zambia −1.98 −2.00 −0.98 4.55 1.80 Zimbabwe 0.00 0.87 0.06 −4.99...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...strong variation on both sides. Table 2. Total National Multiparty Elections Held After Independence (1960–2017) Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account...

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa   Reference library

Amy R. Poteete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,080 words

...Swaziland (now eSwatini) No elected local government 6 (11.5%) 0 6 (11.5%) Angola Cape Verde CAR Guinea-Bissau Lesotho Liberia Column totals 45 (86. 5%) 7 (13.5%) 52 Source : Ivanyna and Shah ( 2014 ) . Note : Data for Eritrea are missing. Percentages are out of 52 countries. Measures of direct democracy: • No African country (0%) has legislation that requires public approval of local government decisions via a referendum. • Underlined: In five countries (9.6%), legislation renders some local government decisions subject to public approval via hearings...

Family policy

Family policy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,536 words

...is unclear, more emphasis is now being placed on family-friendly policies, programs, and legislation across a broad sweep of government activity. Deborah Mitchell Further reading ABS (2003), Child Care . Australian Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue No: 4402.0 Gray, Matthew and Stanton, David (2002), ‘Work and family life’, Family Matters 61 McDonald, P. (2003), ‘ Reforming family support in Australia ’, People and Place , 11 (2) 1–15 Mitchell, Deborah (1997), ‘Family policy’, in Brian Galligan , Ian McAllister and John Ravenhill (eds), New...

Belgium

Belgium   Reference library

Mike Beke

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,554 words

.... Government of the Walloon Region . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.wallonie.be/nl/index.html . Government of the Walloon Community . Accessed 8 August 2011, http://www.cfwb.be/ . McWilliams, Wayne and Piotrowski, Harry . The World since 1945: A History of International Relations . (London, 2005). Meersche Van De, Paul . Internationale Politiek 1815–2005 . (Leuven, Belgium, 2006). OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Accessed 20 August 2011, http://www.oecd.org/home/0...

Education policy

Education policy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,236 words

... 7535 schools in 1993 following some closures. There were 1698 Roman Catholic schools with 0.7 million students, and 979 independent schools with 0.4 million students. All schools must have state registration to operate: this is a low barrier, relating mainly to safety, not educational qualities. Government schools are state‐funded, though the states receive some federal monies for government schooling. In most states they can raise local monies and control part of their budget, but do not charge compulsory fees. Private schools in receipt of federal or...

Singapore

Singapore   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,284 words

...economic development and allow individuals to make the optimum use of their lives and talents. Four core values widely discussed by government officials since 1989 are: 1) community over self; 2) the family as the basic building block of society; 3) solving major issues through consensus instead of contention; and 4) attention to religious and racial tolerance. Singaporeans have adopted much from the West, but the government wishes to exclude what it sees as negative aspects often accompanying Western culture, including illicit drugs, illegitimate births,...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,093 words

...Emergency Fund ( UNICEF ) and United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA ). Like other rich countries Australia contributes Official Development Assistance ( see Aid policy ). In 2004–05 this amounted to just over AUD$2 billion, or approximately 0.26 per cent of Australia's Gross National Income ( GNI ). This is well below the target of 0.7 per cent set by the UN General Assembly in 1970 —reached only by Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Sweden—but approximately average for members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and...

East Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics

East Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Walter O. Oyugi and Jimmy Ochieng

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,018 words

...million), Kikuyu (6.5 million), Luhya (5.3 million), and Luo (3.9 million). There are also 2.4 million Somali and 2.2 million Kisii ( Bosire, 2016 ; Republic of Kenya, 2009 ). Just like Kenya, Uganda also struggles with ethnic tensions among 12 major ethnic groups in the country: the Baganda (16.9%), Banyankole (9.5%), Basoga (8.4%), Bakiga (6.9%), Iteso (6.4%), Langi (6.1%), Acholi (4.7%), Bagisu (4.6%), Lugbara (4.2%), Batoro (3.2%), Banyoro (2.7%), Karamajong (2.0%), and others (24.4%) ( Ssali, 2017 ). Uganda’s president Milton Obote’s policy of...

Aid policy

Aid policy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,796 words

...development’, which reflects DFAT's own core goal of advancing ‘the interests of Australia and Australians internationally’. In the financial year 2005–06 , the Howard government committed 2.5 billion dollars to the aid program. This represents an increase in funding compared with recent history, but at 0.28 per cent of gross national income (GNI) it stills falls far short of the 0.7 per cent of GNI per year agreed upon by industrialised countries, including Australia, in numerous UN declarations. AusAID manages the aid program primarily through a...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,704 words

...by 42 percent. The freeing of prices in early 1992 associated with “shock therapy” led to annual inflation rates of 2,500 percent in 1992 , 847 percent in 1993 , and 250 percent in 1994 . Beginning in 1995–96 a concerted effort was made to bring inflation under control, and by 1997 inflation had dropped to 11 percent annually. In that year the Russian economy may have registered a slight positive growth rate—between 0.2 and 0.4 percent. (A major corruption scandal within the State Committee for Statistics raised questions about these figures.) By...

Foreign Workers

Foreign Workers   Reference library

Anthony M. Messina

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,577 words

...World Bank, these remittances totaled $416 billion in 2009 , of which $307 billion (bn) were sent to the developing countries. The top ten remittance recipients in 2010 were India ($55.0 bn), China ($51.0 bn), Mexico ($22.6 bn), the Philippines ($21.3 bn), France ($15.9 bn), Germany ($11.6 bn), Bangladesh ($11.1 bn), Belgium ($10.4 bn), Spain ($10.2 bn), and Nigeria ($10.0 bn). The top ten remittance recipients as percentage of gross domestic product in 2009 were Tajikistan (35.1 percent), Tonga (27.7 percent), Lesotho (24.8 percent), Moldova (23.1...

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