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Human ecology

Human ecology   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,236 words

...decades. A sensible policy would be to help them find alternative sources of affordable protein, so that they don't need to hunt so much. The first task was to gauge how much protein was involved. Estimates put it at around 2 million tonnes a year. In pursuit of answers, the UK Bushmeat Campaign brought together more than 30 non-governmental organizations, concerned with human welfare as well as with conservation. The campaign explicitly linked the survival of species such as chimpanzees and gorillas to the sustainable development and nutrition of the peoples of...

Biodiversity

Biodiversity  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

... Terry Erwin of the Smithsonian Institution, you can arrive at a figure of 30 million species, just for arthropods. It is as well to remember that fewer than 2 million species have been identified and named. Island biogeography nevertheless became a basis for calculating the loss of species, as a result of destruction of habitats. A rule of thumb is that if a habitat loses one per cent of its area, then 0.25 per cent of its species will become extinct. So if you guess that the tropical forests harbour 10 million species, and are disappearing at a rate of one...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...keeps them interested? Table 2. Distributions of Percentages of Students Planning Further Study in 19 Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table 4.Proportions of Retained...

chemical and biological sciences

chemical and biological sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...American 4 0.06 38 0.35 Source: National Science Foundation. Table 3. Minority Percentages of Freshmen Intending to Major in Science and Engineering 1977 2000 African American 6.0% 11.5% Hispanic 0.5% 7.1% Source: National Science Foundation. Industry and government labs, on the other hand, have been much more wel-coming to women and minorities in the sciences, and the percentages of women and minorities are much higher than in academia. Companies have been much more successful at recruiting and retaining minorities and at establishing a culture that values...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to state and local governments and consequently was uneven. In 1842 , Massachusetts became the first state to commence comprehensive registration of births, deaths, and marriages. Quality was good by about 1855 . Several states followed suit, but in 1900 the Death Registration Area was formed with only 10 states and the District of Columbia. The entire United States was not covered until 1933 . By the middle of the nineteenth century there was enough information to make reasonable national estimates of life expectancy. By 1850 , e(0) for the white...

women and minorities in the scientific community

women and minorities in the scientific community   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...2,796 0.7 Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, 2004 , Table C-4, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Sex and Field: 1994–2001 ,” and Table C-6, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Field, Citizenship, and Race/Ethnicity: 1994–2001 .” Table 2. Doctoral Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Field, 2001 All fields 40,744 Percentage of S&E All science and engineering (S&E) 25,509 Male 16,162 63.5 Female 9,303 36.5 White 14,905 58.4 Asian/Pacific Islander 6,540 25.6 Black 864 3.4 Hispanic 1,181 4.6 Native American/Alaskan Native 84 0.3...

energy systems

energy systems   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...within a decade, partly because it is the least-expensive renewable source, producing electricity profitably at less than $0.05 per kWh at good sites. Wind energy advocates, mostly outside the conventional energy system, have successfully pushed the system to respond, making wind almost mainstream. Solar thermal energy for space heating, once considered the most promising alternative source, received a substantial push from governmental tax credits in the 1970s. But it so far has proven too fussy and too expensive for widespread use, although passive solar...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1920 and 1940 , from 2,775 to 27,777. Typically, at least half of them worked in the largest 10 percent of the labs, as big firms across the economy came to see research as essential. Investors took note. Over the course of the 1920s, stock values came to reflect an assessment of a firm’s potential to generate new technologies and accumulated expertise in research, rather than merely its physical assets. Although developments in the private sector flourished, World War I did not produce a corresponding watershed in government policy regarding research....

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... Pollard, Willard L. V. Position Controlling Apparatus . U.S. 2,286,571. Filed 22 April 1938 and issued 16 June 1942. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2286571?printsec=description&dq=Pollard,+2,286,571&ei=q8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from ...

Iron and Steel Production and Products

Iron and Steel Production and Products   Reference library

Jonathan Rees

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Steel Production and Products Iron and steel are closely related substances. Iron is an element. Add carbon to it and it can become the compound known as steel. In the nineteenth century, steel was defined as having between 0.2 and 1.0 percent carbon. Anything with a carbon content of 2 percent or more was considered cast iron. Any pig iron processed down to contain a lower carbon content than steel was considered wrought iron. Without readily available chemical testing, trained iron puddlers made the decision whether the metal had reached the stage from...

science policy, development of

science policy, development of   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... ( GNP ). Scientific performance was then taken to be the proportion of GNP reinvested in R&D (anything from 0.5 to 2.5 percent in those days; today 3 percent or higher is considered a good benchmark). The chain of events from new ideas and discovery of physical laws to marketable products or commodities defined a linear model of innovation. Recommendations to member governments included norms for establishing scientific advisory bodies to government. Several debates followed. The Minerva debate (named after the journal that carried it) concerned criteria for...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...He relied on machinists to perfect and produce his equipment. Aided by government funding, he succeeded in 1844 , and telegraph messages transmitted by Western Union, the near-monopoly intercity provider, rose to 9.2 million in 1870 and 75.1 million in 1910 . The telegraph’s success nurtured three new occupations with electrical knowledge—telegraphers, electrical engineers, and electrical machinists—who became the industry’s principal inventors. Annual patents grew from 2 in the 1846–1855 decade to 22 around 1870 and 47 around 1890 , before...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Politics . Cambridge, Mass: PublicAffairs, 2004. Stresses soft power as a form of ‘attraction’, and includes useful global data on what others like about America. Office of Management and Budget . Fiscal Year 2012. Historical Tables. Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget , Table 3.2. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/budget-2012-tab/pdf/budget-2012-tab.pdf (accessed 18 October 2012). Oldenziel, Ruth , and Karin Zachmann , eds. Cold War Kitchen. Americanization, Technology, and European Users . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009. Describes...

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro   Reference library

David Alan Grier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...), and the BESM ( 1952 ) in the Soviet Union. The design of the IBM 701 was directly based on von Neumann’s machine. It was marketed to government laboratories and large engineering firms. In all, IBM installed 19 copies of the machine. Although all 19 of the IBM 701 machines could run the same programs, they could not execute the programs for other computers, such as the UNIVAC I. The UNIVAC I was designed for government agencies and corporate offices. It could compute with the decimal arithmetic that was found in accounting offices but could not easily...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...to U.S. GNP in 1996 Technology Category Energy Manufacturing (organization of work) Commu-nication Travel Military Medicine Agriculture, forestry, fishig Approximate contribution and percent of total to GNP of United States in 1996 (in billions)† 283.2(4.2%) 1316.0(19.4%) 695.3(10.2%) 455.5(6.7%) 270.0 (apx)(4.0%) 459.1(6.8%) 130.4(1.9%) Per Capita GNP by Country‡ Year USA UK France Germany 1998 $27331 18714 19558 17779 Computerization of the workplace Offshore assembly plants Personal computer “Smart” bombs Genetic manipulation Advanced reproductive...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Flexner’s report, only three remained. Nevertheless, the United States led the world in the number of female medical students and practicing physicians. In Boston, an atypical example, nearly one of every five physicians (18.2 percent) was a woman; over the next two decades the percentage plummeted to 9.7 percent (with 5.0 percent becoming the national average). Between 1910 and 1960 , few American medical schools had a student population of more than 5 percent female ( Walsh, 1977 , pp. 179–185; see also Morantz-Sanchez, 1985 ; Peitzman, 2000 ;...

family, the, and science

family, the, and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...at the end of the nineteenth century, early psychologists, mother's movement leaders and even the leaders of domestic science began to frame childhood as serious business that must not be left to the untrained. In the early part of the twentieth century, research institutes and government conferences became centers for studying and doing something about the child. The early tone was one of restraint and regularity. Women's magazines and child-raising books and manuals became central mechanisms for spreading the new behaviorist theories on the subject. That tide...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and influenza took far more lives than epidemics of cholera and yellow fever, but the latter generated more God-talk. When the mysterious Asiatic cholera first struck the East Coast, in 1832 , ministers interpreted it as “a scourge , a rod in the hand of God,” and government officials hastily declared days of fasting and prayer. The next outbreak, in 1849 , elicited just as many cries to heaven, but physicians stepped up their search for natural explanations. As the epidemic petered out, the president of one medical association expressed the hope...

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