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Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to state and local governments and consequently was uneven. In 1842 , Massachusetts became the first state to commence comprehensive registration of births, deaths, and marriages. Quality was good by about 1855 . Several states followed suit, but in 1900 the Death Registration Area was formed with only 10 states and the District of Columbia. The entire United States was not covered until 1933 . By the middle of the nineteenth century there was enough information to make reasonable national estimates of life expectancy. By 1850 , e(0) for the white...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1920 and 1940 , from 2,775 to 27,777. Typically, at least half of them worked in the largest 10 percent of the labs, as big firms across the economy came to see research as essential. Investors took note. Over the course of the 1920s, stock values came to reflect an assessment of a firm’s potential to generate new technologies and accumulated expertise in research, rather than merely its physical assets. Although developments in the private sector flourished, World War I did not produce a corresponding watershed in government policy regarding research....

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... Pollard, Willard L. V. Position Controlling Apparatus . U.S. 2,286,571. Filed 22 April 1938 and issued 16 June 1942. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2286571?printsec=description&dq=Pollard,+2,286,571&ei=q8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from ...

Iron and Steel Production and Products

Iron and Steel Production and Products   Reference library

Jonathan Rees

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Steel Production and Products Iron and steel are closely related substances. Iron is an element. Add carbon to it and it can become the compound known as steel. In the nineteenth century, steel was defined as having between 0.2 and 1.0 percent carbon. Anything with a carbon content of 2 percent or more was considered cast iron. Any pig iron processed down to contain a lower carbon content than steel was considered wrought iron. Without readily available chemical testing, trained iron puddlers made the decision whether the metal had reached the stage from...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...He relied on machinists to perfect and produce his equipment. Aided by government funding, he succeeded in 1844 , and telegraph messages transmitted by Western Union, the near-monopoly intercity provider, rose to 9.2 million in 1870 and 75.1 million in 1910 . The telegraph’s success nurtured three new occupations with electrical knowledge—telegraphers, electrical engineers, and electrical machinists—who became the industry’s principal inventors. Annual patents grew from 2 in the 1846–1855 decade to 22 around 1870 and 47 around 1890 , before...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Politics . Cambridge, Mass: PublicAffairs, 2004. Stresses soft power as a form of ‘attraction’, and includes useful global data on what others like about America. Office of Management and Budget . Fiscal Year 2012. Historical Tables. Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget , Table 3.2. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/budget-2012-tab/pdf/budget-2012-tab.pdf (accessed 18 October 2012). Oldenziel, Ruth , and Karin Zachmann , eds. Cold War Kitchen. Americanization, Technology, and European Users . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009. Describes...

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro   Reference library

David Alan Grier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...), and the BESM ( 1952 ) in the Soviet Union. The design of the IBM 701 was directly based on von Neumann’s machine. It was marketed to government laboratories and large engineering firms. In all, IBM installed 19 copies of the machine. Although all 19 of the IBM 701 machines could run the same programs, they could not execute the programs for other computers, such as the UNIVAC I. The UNIVAC I was designed for government agencies and corporate offices. It could compute with the decimal arithmetic that was found in accounting offices but could not easily...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Flexner’s report, only three remained. Nevertheless, the United States led the world in the number of female medical students and practicing physicians. In Boston, an atypical example, nearly one of every five physicians (18.2 percent) was a woman; over the next two decades the percentage plummeted to 9.7 percent (with 5.0 percent becoming the national average). Between 1910 and 1960 , few American medical schools had a student population of more than 5 percent female ( Walsh, 1977 , pp. 179–185; see also Morantz-Sanchez, 1985 ; Peitzman, 2000 ;...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and influenza took far more lives than epidemics of cholera and yellow fever, but the latter generated more God-talk. When the mysterious Asiatic cholera first struck the East Coast, in 1832 , ministers interpreted it as “a scourge , a rod in the hand of God,” and government officials hastily declared days of fasting and prayer. The next outbreak, in 1849 , elicited just as many cries to heaven, but physicians stepped up their search for natural explanations. As the epidemic petered out, the president of one medical association expressed the hope...

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