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Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,715 words

...health expenditure in Australia is $38770 000 000 (US$24.42 billion, £10.0 billion). Two-thirds of this expenditure is on patients over 60 years of age; and an estimated one-half of the total healthcare expenditure occurs during the last year of life, on average during the eighth decade. The overall cost of healthcare is shared almost equally among the three contributors to medicine: • Federal government 35.9% • State government 33.5% • Private sector 30.6% The federal government contributes to healthcare costs through taxation; and, from taxation and levy...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,701 words

...1997 , there were an average 2.14 beds for every 1000 persons in China: in cities, 3.49 beds for every 1000 persons, and in rural areas 1.57 beds. The average number of healthcare workers for 1000 people was 3.65 country wide — 5.29 in cities, and 2.37 in rural areas. There were 1.65 doctors and 0.99 nurses per 1000 inhabitants. Like most developing countries, China is facing the problems of the shortage and low quality of health workers, limitation of health resources, and uneven distribution of healthcare personnel. The government has applied some strategies...

euthanasia

euthanasia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,715 words

...total number of deaths that resulted from euthanasia was 2.3% in the interview study and 2.4% in the death certificates study. Assistance with a suicide had been given in 0.4% and 0.2% of deaths, respectively. These results agreed with those in 1990 . In 0.7% of the cases, the patient's life had been terminated without specific request. A more intensive treatment of pain and/or other symptoms, probably resulting in earlier death, had been given in 14.7% and 19.1% of the cases, respectively, and in 20.2% of the total number of deaths a procedure intended to...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,248 words

...the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic, largest of the republics of the former USSR, and what is now the Russian Federation. It covers an area of 17 075 400 km 2 and at the beginning of 1997 had a population of 147.5 million, of which 73% were classified as urban and 27% as rural. In Russia today the public provision of medical care has been badly affected by the weakness of central government and the country's chaotic transition to a free market economy. Compounding these factors is the negative legacy bequeathed by the communist regime. It caused...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,813 words

...other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Since 1989 the government has been trying to transfer more health costs to private funds (including health insurance). This now accounts for 24% of expenditure on health. Publicly funded real expenditure has increased in the last 10 years, from NZ$4.2 to 5.2 billion at a rate of 1.3% per year, while privately funded expenditure rose from NZ$0.6 to $1.6 billion at a rate of 6.7% per year. The government believes that it cannot continue to meet the total cost of universal healthcare and is...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,553 words

...in the number of medical students to 7695 in 1998 . The teacher–student ratio in medical schools is 1 to 2.0. Currently there are 19.1 doctors per 10 000 population, fewer than in Britain and the USA. Pre-war Japanese medical schools tended to value basic medical science. This was a characteristic of German medical education, resulting to some extent in a lack of bedside training. During the postwar era, many medical personnel came to Japan from the USA to advise Japanese schools on their development. Medical textbooks and journals published in Britain and...

Africa — present and future

Africa — present and future   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
4,063 words

...generally after independence in the 1960s and 1970s. Before the founding of local medical schools, African doctors were mainly trained in former European colonial countries with government or donor grants as well as in non-colonial countries such as Sweden, Canada, or the USA. There are now about 92 medical schools in Africa, a ratio of 1 per 6 million people (compared with 1 per 2 million in the western world and 1 per 5 million in South Africa). The first medical schools were those of Cape Town ( 1912 ), University of the Witswatersrand ( 1920 ), and the...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,187 words

...own program on medical education. The Government, helped by donations from wealthy Indian merchants, ran all three medical institutes. homeopathy made its entry into India when John Martin Honigberger was invited to treat Ranjit Singh , ruler of the Punjab, for paralysis of the vocal cord and edema. The first Homeopathy College was started in 1881 in Calcutta. Recent years In 1944 the Bhore committee, comprising both British and Indian members, and headed by Sir Joseph Bhore , was critical of the British government's role in public health in India....

demography

demography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,908 words

...even in poor, illiterate societies have led to precipitous falls in mortality in the populous, developing world. Although fertility declines have also followed, aided in many developing countries by governmental family planning programs, the fall has been slower and later than the fall in mortality. World population grew to 2.8 billion by 1955 , a growth rate of 0.8% per annum, then by 1.8% per annum to 5 billion by the mid-1980s, and reached 6 billion by 1999 , having taken less than 40 years to double. However, the most rapid phase of world population...

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
4,199 words

...on an outpatient footing. The numbers of inpatients treated per 1000 inhabitants were in 1970 154.0 and in 1995 201.0, hospital beds per 10 000 inhabitants in 1970 112.0 and in 1994 97.0, average length of stay (in days) in 1970 24.9 and in 1997 11.0, average utilization of beds in 1970 88.5% and 1997 80.7%. The hospitals are financed through the ‘dual system’: construction and capital costs for major equipment are covered by the government, provided that the hospitals are included in the hospital supply plan administered by the health...

pathology

pathology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,334 words

...Conclusion The medical specialty of anatomical pathology complements anatomy and/or histology and, encompassing morbid anatomy and histopathology (including ctyopathology), underlies the whole practice of medicine. In most countries training and practice are regulated by the government, local medical unions, or scientific societies. In Britain the regulatory body is the Royal College of Pathologists. Pathologists are to be found in every general hospital, teaching hospital, and medical school world-wide. In addition to their day-to-day casework, pathologists...

violence

violence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,892 words

...violence. Homicide rates of over 40 per 100 000 per annum occur in sub-Saharan Africa and in Latin America. Among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations, the USA is an outlier with 10.1 deaths per 100 000; rates in others range from 0.6 in England to 2.1 in Canada. Homicide caused by firearms is 12 times more common in the USA than in other OECD nations. In the USA in 1994 , firearm-related homicide and suicide together caused 38 805 deaths, compared with 42 524 motor vehicle-related deaths; the latter are declining...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to state and local governments and consequently was uneven. In 1842 , Massachusetts became the first state to commence comprehensive registration of births, deaths, and marriages. Quality was good by about 1855 . Several states followed suit, but in 1900 the Death Registration Area was formed with only 10 states and the District of Columbia. The entire United States was not covered until 1933 . By the middle of the nineteenth century there was enough information to make reasonable national estimates of life expectancy. By 1850 , e(0) for the white...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1920 and 1940 , from 2,775 to 27,777. Typically, at least half of them worked in the largest 10 percent of the labs, as big firms across the economy came to see research as essential. Investors took note. Over the course of the 1920s, stock values came to reflect an assessment of a firm’s potential to generate new technologies and accumulated expertise in research, rather than merely its physical assets. Although developments in the private sector flourished, World War I did not produce a corresponding watershed in government policy regarding research....

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... Pollard, Willard L. V. Position Controlling Apparatus . U.S. 2,286,571. Filed 22 April 1938 and issued 16 June 1942. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2286571?printsec=description&dq=Pollard,+2,286,571&ei=q8ahT7q_Jqr26AGE0LGFCQ#v=onepage&q=Pollard%2C%202%2C286%2C571&f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from ...

Iron and Steel Production and Products

Iron and Steel Production and Products   Reference library

Jonathan Rees

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Steel Production and Products Iron and steel are closely related substances. Iron is an element. Add carbon to it and it can become the compound known as steel. In the nineteenth century, steel was defined as having between 0.2 and 1.0 percent carbon. Anything with a carbon content of 2 percent or more was considered cast iron. Any pig iron processed down to contain a lower carbon content than steel was considered wrought iron. Without readily available chemical testing, trained iron puddlers made the decision whether the metal had reached the stage from...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...He relied on machinists to perfect and produce his equipment. Aided by government funding, he succeeded in 1844 , and telegraph messages transmitted by Western Union, the near-monopoly intercity provider, rose to 9.2 million in 1870 and 75.1 million in 1910 . The telegraph’s success nurtured three new occupations with electrical knowledge—telegraphers, electrical engineers, and electrical machinists—who became the industry’s principal inventors. Annual patents grew from 2 in the 1846–1855 decade to 22 around 1870 and 47 around 1890 , before...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Politics . Cambridge, Mass: PublicAffairs, 2004. Stresses soft power as a form of ‘attraction’, and includes useful global data on what others like about America. Office of Management and Budget . Fiscal Year 2012. Historical Tables. Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget , Table 3.2. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/budget-2012-tab/pdf/budget-2012-tab.pdf (accessed 18 October 2012). Oldenziel, Ruth , and Karin Zachmann , eds. Cold War Kitchen. Americanization, Technology, and European Users . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009. Describes...

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro

Computers, Mainframe, Mini, and Micro   Reference library

David Alan Grier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...), and the BESM ( 1952 ) in the Soviet Union. The design of the IBM 701 was directly based on von Neumann’s machine. It was marketed to government laboratories and large engineering firms. In all, IBM installed 19 copies of the machine. Although all 19 of the IBM 701 machines could run the same programs, they could not execute the programs for other computers, such as the UNIVAC I. The UNIVAC I was designed for government agencies and corporate offices. It could compute with the decimal arithmetic that was found in accounting offices but could not easily...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Flexner’s report, only three remained. Nevertheless, the United States led the world in the number of female medical students and practicing physicians. In Boston, an atypical example, nearly one of every five physicians (18.2 percent) was a woman; over the next two decades the percentage plummeted to 9.7 percent (with 5.0 percent becoming the national average). Between 1910 and 1960 , few American medical schools had a student population of more than 5 percent female ( Walsh, 1977 , pp. 179–185; see also Morantz-Sanchez, 1985 ; Peitzman, 2000 ;...

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