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Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

John Majewski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,323 words

...modestly by modern standards, increasing anywhere from 0.3 to 0.6 percent per year. Yet colonists built an increasingly sophisticated commercial infrastructure that resulted in the growth of towns and cities. Such development was particularly important in New England and the Middle Colonies, where cities became major market centers. By 1770 such cities as Boston , New York , and Philadelphia provided an impressive array of mercantile services that induced future economic growth. Government policy, both in Britain and in the colonies, also aided...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers II

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
620 words

...(Quakers), who be-lieved that biblical commandments and Jesus’s teachings prohibited them from engaging in war or any violence against other human beings. Since these religious faiths were comparatively small, economically productive, and otherwise law abiding, most colonial governments eventually exempted them from bearing arms. Some objectors were forced into militia service during the Revolutionary War, but several of the new states recognized religious conscientious objection. Indeed, James Madison sought to include protection for religious objectors in...

REAGAN TAX CUTS

REAGAN TAX CUTS  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...personal tax rates to eliminate the automatic increase in revenues generated by bracket creep. Influenced by Laffer-curve theory that tax reduction would broaden the economic base, Reagan was discomfited by the explosion of the deficit from 2.6 percent gross domestic prod-uct (GDP) in fiscal year (FY) 1981 to 6.0 percent in FY 1983 . This expansion was primarily caused by the severe recession of 1981 – 1982 , but ERTA’s large revenue costs underwrote large deficits into the recovery cycle. Some Democrats suspected that Reagan had deliberately...

Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases   Reference library

John R. Wunder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
896 words

...( 1884 ), argued 30 October 1884 , decided 8 December 1884 by a vote of 7 to 2, Harlan for the Court, Field and Bradley in dissent; United States v. Jung Ah Lung , 124 U.S. 621 ( 1888 ), argued 9 January 1888 , decided 13 February 1888 by a vote of 6 to 3, Blatchford for the Court, Harlan in dissent; Chae Chan Ping v. United States (also recorded as The Chinese Exclusion Case), 130 U.S. 581 ( 1889 ), argued 28 March 1889 , decided 13 May 1889 by a vote of 9 to 0, Field for the Court; and Fong Yue Ting v. United States , Wong Quan v. United...

Taxes

Taxes   Reference library

Gordon Morris Bakken and Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,058 words

...tax revolt. The ballot measure set real estate property values at 1975 – 1976 market value for tax purposes, limited real estate taxes to 1 percent of the value, limited tax increases to 2 percent per year, provided for a full reassessed value base at sale price for new owners, required a two-thirds vote for legislative tax increases, and made local government tax increases subject to two-thirds approval of eligible voters. Howard Jarvis and Paul Gann were the architects of this crusade. Jarvis, the chair of the United Organization of Taxpayers, had...

Environmental Policy

Environmental Policy   Reference library

Paul Charles Milazzo, Donald T. Critchlow, Mark J. Rozell, and Donald T. Critchlow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
5,203 words

...maintained that implementation of existing laws exposed the complexities of combating water pollution. Ruckelshaus asked Congress for more time to gather scientific data and conduct analyses. Congress rejected Ruckelshaus ’s request. Muskie introduced a bill on 2 November 1971 , which passed 86 to 0 in the Senate and 380 to 14 in the House. President Richard M. Nixon vetoed the bill as too costly. Both houses of Congress voted to override the veto. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as an amendment to a 1948 clean water law. This...

CLEAN WATER ACT

CLEAN WATER ACT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...that implementation of existing laws exposed the complexities of combating water pollution. Ruckelshaus asked Congress for more time to gather scientific data and conduct analyses. Congress rejected Ruckelshaus ’s request. Muskie introduced a bill on 2 November 1971 , which passed 86 to 0 in the Senate and 380 to 14 in the House. President Richard M. Nixon vetoed the bill as too costly. Both houses of Congress voted to override the veto. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as an amendment to a 1948 clean water law. This action...

Third Parties

Third Parties   Reference library

Ronald B. Rapoport

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
3,220 words

...it receives a substantial vote. 2. One or more major parties must make a bid for this support by tailoring their own positions to better reflect those of the third party’s supporters. 3. The third party’s supporters must respond to the bid by moving their support toward the major party or parties making the bid. The Perot candidacy of 1992 provides an excellent example of this process. In 1992 , both major parties and their candidates failed to engage a set of issues important to a large number of voters: governmental reform, a serious commitment to...

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