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Steffi (barley)

Steffi (barley)   Reference library

Kraus-Weyermann Thomas

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a brewing base malt, Steffi produces mashes of low viscosity and high extract values that result in worts of good fermentability. According to the official listing by the Bundessortenamt (the German government’s seed certification agency), Steffi’s favorable all-round qualities include kernel homogeneity, a high percentage of kernels with a diameter greater than 2.5 mm, low protein values, and fairly high agronomic yields, as well as unusually high disease resistance in the field. Steffi seems to be almost uniquely immune to loose smut of barley (Ustilago...

organic viticulture

organic viticulture   Reference library

Monty Waldin

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,221 words

...in 2000 ), Spain (5.2% in 2010 ; <1% in 1999 ), Portugal ( c .1% in 2011 ); Germany (5.6% in 2011 ; 1.8% in 2003 ; 1.2% in 1994 ); Austria (9.2% in 2012 ; 6% in 2009 ; 1% in 1999 ; 0.3% in 1992 ); Greece (4% in 2010 ; 1% in 2000 ); Lebanon (4.5% in 2010 ); England and Wales (3.4% in 2010 ); California ( c .4% in 2011 ; 1.1% in 1999 ; 0.17% in 1989 ); Oregon (12% in 2013 ; 8.6% in 2009 ; 1.4% in 1999 ); Washington state (2.5% in 2011 ; 0.6% in 1999 ); Canada (2.8% in 2011 ); New Zealand (7.6% in 2012 ; 2% in 2009 ; 0.7% in 1999 );...

politics of cheese

politics of cheese   Reference library

Carlos Yescas

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,244 words

... CLAL.it. “European Union: Dairy Sector.” http://www.clal.it/en/?section=stat_ue15 . Clarke, Toni , and Krista Hughes . “U.S. FDA Moves to Dampen Fears It Will Ban Cheese Aged on Wood.” Reuters , 10 June 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/10/us-fda-cheese-idUSKBN0EL2IV20140610 . Eurostat. “Milk and Milk Product Statistics.” http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Milk_and_milk_product_statistics . Johnson, Renée , and Charles Hanrahan . “The US-EU Beef Hormone Dispute.” Congressional Research Service Report R40449, 14 January...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Winifred Bird

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Japan is home to a well-established commercial cheese industry and a small but growing community of artisanal cheese producers. Between 1940 , when annual per capita consumption was a mere 0.14 ounces (4 grams), and 2011 , when it topped 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms), cheese secured a place on the table in a country whose population for many centuries eschewed dairy products almost entirely. The tastes of the average eater remain timid, however, with processed cheeses comprising nearly half of sales and mild standbys such as Gouda, Cheddar, Camembert, and...

Ireland and the potato

Ireland and the potato   Reference library

Regina Sexton

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,177 words

...soup kitchens. The government followed suit by implementing what was known as the ‘Soup Kitchen Act’ in the spring of 1847 , and Alexis Soyer ( see english cookery books ), the famous French chef of the Reform Club in London, was entrusted with the task of creating a sustaining soup for the starving Irish. His recipe No. 1 called for 4 oz (115 g) leg of beef to 2 gallons (7.5 litres) of water, 2 oz (56 g) of dripping, 2 onions and other vegetables, 8 oz (225 g) of second-rate flour, 8 oz (225 g) pearl barley, 3 oz (85 g) of salt, and 0.5 oz (14 g) of brown...

goat

goat   Reference library

Carol Delaney

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,372 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Worldwide estimates are 457,401 metric tons of goat cheese production and there is increasing interest by producers, consumers, and governments alike to augment this. Table 1. Goat milk production rank by country with principal milk products and breeds of goat. Country 1000 M tons 1 Primary consumption Cheese(C), Milk (M), Fermented Noncheese (F) Representative breed 2 India 4,850 M/C Jamunapari Bangladesh 2,608 M Black Bengal Sudan (former) 1,532 M Nubian Pakistan 779 M Beetal Mali 715 M Sahelian France 624...

mild

mild   Reference library

Brian Glover

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...is today a relatively low-strength, lightly hopped ale, mainly found on (most is keg or brewery-conditioned) draught in some regions of England and Wales. Despite its low alcoholic strength (around 3.0%–3.5% alcohol by volume [ABV]), it can be quite full bodied, with a sustaining fruity sweetness, sometimes primed with sugar. Most versions tend to be dark ruby brown, but they can be light colored as well. Mild has a blue-collar image, as it is seen as the industrial workers’ beer, brewed for drinking in quantity. It is considered a comforting, refreshing...

canning

canning   Reference library

Katarzyna J. Cwiertka and Ralph Hancock

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,267 words

...that might discolour the food or give it an off flavour, and also removes air, which helps when filling the can. Filling is done on a continuous production line. The can is packed with food and topped up with brine, sauce, or syrup as appropriate, leaving a head space of 6 mm (0.25") to allow for expansion. Then the lid is clamped on by a machine which produces a double seam. It is important that the contents are hot when this is done, so that when the can is heated later it will not burst. If necessary the can may be warmed with hot water or steam. The can...

phylloxera

phylloxera   Reference library

Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,205 words
Illustration(s):
1

...social effects. In France, for example, almost 2.5 million ha/6.2 million acres of vineyards were destroyed, the aphid making no distinction between the vineyards of the most famous châteaux and those of humble peasants. For individual French vine-growers from the late 1860s, the sight of their vineyards dying literally before their eyes was particularly traumatic, although the epidemic soon spread elsewhere. Phylloxera invasion had a major social and economic impact, involving national governments and local committees, and requiring international...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

Andrés Rosberg

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
6,544 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Juan Domingo Perón came to power in 1943 he appealed directly to the workers with promises of rapid industrialization, better working conditions, and organized, government-controlled unions. For a while Argentina’s fortunes revived, but in the mid 1950s Perón and his ambitious and charismatic wife Eva were deposed by the military. From then on a succession of opportunistic military governments led the country into spiralling decline. The urban masses created an unprecedented market for wine so that quantity not quality became the imperative. Most producers...

port

port   Reference library

Richard Mayson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
5,935 words

...is under vine. In common with most of the north of Portugal, the region is fragmented into tiny holdings of which 142,000 were registered with the Casa do Douro, the official body set up in 1932 to represent the growers. Over 80% of these holdings are less than 0.5 ha/1.2 acres in size and a mere 0.01% have an area greater than 30 ha/74 acres. The development of the Douro Superior has caused a serious imbalance and brought a dramatic reduction in the price of grapes for Douro wine. Many growers, especially in the steeper Baixo Corgo region, have been...

California

California   Reference library

Thomas Pinney, Bruce Cass, Linda Murphy, Bruce Cass, and Linda Murphy

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
7,537 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shipping 215 million cases in 2013 —3% more than in 2012 . Meanwhile US wine exports, which were negligible after the Second World War, have grown steadily since the mid 1980s, with California supplying 95% of that volume. In 1986 , the US exported only 7.3 million gallons/0.275 million hl with a value to the wineries of US$35 million. In 2013 , those figures had risen to 435 million gallons/16.4 million hl with a value to the wineries of US$1.55 billion. The eu was the biggest importer, followed in order by Canada, Japan, Hong Kong, and China....

Bordeaux

Bordeaux   Reference library

Hanneke Wilson, Edmund Penning-Rowsell, and Jancis Robinson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
6,069 words
Illustration(s):
1

...first author to mention that wine was grown in his native Bordeaux, he was also the region’s first known wine-grower. In his poem ‘De herediolo’ (‘On his small inheritance’), dated 379, he tells us that he grows 100 iugera (a iugerum is approximately two-thirds of an acre or 0.25 ha) of vines. His estate was probably at Bazas, near the river Garonne (although some have suggested St-Émilion). In two of his other poems, ‘Mosella’ (‘On the Moselle’), and ‘Ordo urbium nobilium’ (‘The list of distinguished cities’), he describes the banks of the Garonne...

Pickling

Pickling   Reference library

Lucy Norris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from fermentation, citrus juice, and vinegar add flavor but also discourage the growth of harmful microorganisms. Food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism) and Escherichia coli , cannot survive in extreme environments—for example, at pH 2.6 to 4.0. Refrigeration and freezer storage slow bacteria, often killing them. Canning or processing pickle jars in a hot-water bath with a temperature of 160°F to 180°F for ten to twenty minutes also kills bad bacteria. Airtight containers prevent oxidization and the growth of molds in...

Fish oils

Fish oils   Reference library

The Oxford Book of Health Foods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...or 0.45g daily, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as part of a healthy lifestyle, helps maintain heart health. ’ Important caveats to the use of the claim are that it relates only to very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (of chain length 20 carbons or above) including EPA, and DHA, and not all long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (which have chain lengths of less than 20). The ratio of EPA and DHA should reflect that which occurs naturally in oily fish' and include the statement that ‘ The Government...

Labeling

Labeling   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on the number of calories consumed per day; the reference is set at 2,000 calories, chosen so because it approximates the caloric requirements for postmenopausal women, the demographic at the highest risk for excessive intake of calories and fat. Amounts less than 0.5 g are rounded to 0 g. For instance, if a product contains 0.45 g of trans fat per serving, and the package contains six servings, the label would show 0 g of trans fat, even though the product actually contains a total of 2.7 g of trans fat. Because of current public health recommendations,...

Lager

Lager   Reference library

Peter LaFrance, Peter LaFrance, Peter LaFrance, and Peter LaFrance

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...can be made in only two ways: special enzymes to convert unfermentable dextrin (at 4.1 calories per gram) to fermentable sugars that will convert to alcohol, or just add water. The United States government has yet to step in and legislate what brewers might call light beer. Canadian regulations specify that light beer, ale, stout, porter, and malt liquor must have 3.2 to 4 percent alcohol by volume content. The Association of Brewers’ 2011 Beer Style Guidelines states that, “These beers are extremely light colored, light in body, and high in carbonation....

Dairy

Dairy   Reference library

Linda Murray Berzok and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...which at high levels was said to put people at greater risk of coronary artery disease. The message was reinforced by private health organizations, such as the American Heart Association, and eventually, the government as well. In the early 1960s, Americans began replacing whole-milk products with low-fat versions containing between 0.5 percent and 2 percent milk fat. The greatest change took place between 1967 and 1994 , when milk consumption dropped by more than 25 percent. In 1994 Americans drank only 19.1 gallons per person—less than the amount they...

Sustainability

Sustainability   Reference library

Christina Bronsing, Carolyn Dimitri, and Meryl Rosofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Genetically Modified Foods ; Organic Food .] Bibliography Agricultural Marketing Service. “ Farmers Market Growth: 1994–2011 .” http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateS&leftNav=WholesaleandFarmersMarket&page=WFMFarmersMarketGrowth&description=Farmers%20Market%20Growth&acct=frmrdirmkt . Altieri Miguel A. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture , 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Berry, Wendell . Bringing It to the Table: On Farming and Food , with an introduction by Michael Pollan . Berkeley,...

Obesity

Obesity   Reference library

Linda Murray Berzok and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American Personal Responsibility in Food Let's Go! In 2004 pediatricians in Maine teamed up with the Maine-Harvard Prevention Research Center, community groups, medical leaders, and communities to launch a program called Let's Go! with the aim of reducing obesity. Its slogan, “5-2-1-0,” reminded participants of its main components: five or more fruits and vegetables a day, two hours or less screen time, one hour or more of physical activity, and zero sugar-sweetened beverages. Local businesses and health-care leaders took up the cause and spread word of the...

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