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Steffi (barley)

Steffi (barley)   Reference library

Kraus-Weyermann Thomas

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a brewing base malt, Steffi produces mashes of low viscosity and high extract values that result in worts of good fermentability. According to the official listing by the Bundessortenamt (the German government’s seed certification agency), Steffi’s favorable all-round qualities include kernel homogeneity, a high percentage of kernels with a diameter greater than 2.5 mm, low protein values, and fairly high agronomic yields, as well as unusually high disease resistance in the field. Steffi seems to be almost uniquely immune to loose smut of barley (Ustilago...

politics of cheese

politics of cheese   Reference library

Carlos Yescas

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,244 words

...facing the cheese industry are in the areas of (1) international trade, concerning disputes over name protections or geographical indications as well as tariffs, and (2) health and safety regulations that have prompted disagreements about milk processing and acceptable techniques of aging cheese. International Trade In trade negotiations, the European Union (EU) has pushed the governments of Latin America, Canada, and the United States to commit to enforcing European protections on rural products that have been granted geographical indication (GI) status...

organic viticulture

organic viticulture   Reference library

Monty Waldin

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,221 words

...in 2000 ), Spain (5.2% in 2010 ; <1% in 1999 ), Portugal ( c .1% in 2011 ); Germany (5.6% in 2011 ; 1.8% in 2003 ; 1.2% in 1994 ); Austria (9.2% in 2012 ; 6% in 2009 ; 1% in 1999 ; 0.3% in 1992 ); Greece (4% in 2010 ; 1% in 2000 ); Lebanon (4.5% in 2010 ); England and Wales (3.4% in 2010 ); California ( c .4% in 2011 ; 1.1% in 1999 ; 0.17% in 1989 ); Oregon (12% in 2013 ; 8.6% in 2009 ; 1.4% in 1999 ); Washington state (2.5% in 2011 ; 0.6% in 1999 ); Canada (2.8% in 2011 ); New Zealand (7.6% in 2012 ; 2% in 2009 ; 0.7% in 1999 );...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Winifred Bird

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Japan is home to a well-established commercial cheese industry and a small but growing community of artisanal cheese producers. Between 1940 , when annual per capita consumption was a mere 0.14 ounces (4 grams), and 2011 , when it topped 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms), cheese secured a place on the table in a country whose population for many centuries eschewed dairy products almost entirely. The tastes of the average eater remain timid, however, with processed cheeses comprising nearly half of sales and mild standbys such as Gouda, Cheddar, Camembert, and...

Ireland and the potato

Ireland and the potato   Reference library

Regina Sexton

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,177 words

...soup kitchens. The government followed suit by implementing what was known as the ‘Soup Kitchen Act’ in the spring of 1847 , and Alexis Soyer ( see english cookery books ), the famous French chef of the Reform Club in London, was entrusted with the task of creating a sustaining soup for the starving Irish. His recipe No. 1 called for 4 oz (115 g) leg of beef to 2 gallons (7.5 litres) of water, 2 oz (56 g) of dripping, 2 onions and other vegetables, 8 oz (225 g) of second-rate flour, 8 oz (225 g) pearl barley, 3 oz (85 g) of salt, and 0.5 oz (14 g) of brown...

goat

goat   Reference library

Carol Delaney

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,372 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Worldwide estimates are 457,401 metric tons of goat cheese production and there is increasing interest by producers, consumers, and governments alike to augment this. Table 1. Goat milk production rank by country with principal milk products and breeds of goat. Country 1000 M tons 1 Primary consumption Cheese(C), Milk (M), Fermented Noncheese (F) Representative breed 2 India 4,850 M/C Jamunapari Bangladesh 2,608 M Black Bengal Sudan (former) 1,532 M Nubian Pakistan 779 M Beetal Mali 715 M Sahelian France 624...

mild

mild   Reference library

Brian Glover

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and a tradition of brewing amber-colored malty “brown” beers developed. Canadian brewer Molson was also brewing mild at its Montreal brewery in 1859, as did brewers in South Africa and Australia. Mild’s robust body was buried by the restrictions of two world wars. The British government wanted beer to become weaker, all the better to have the workforce at full strength in the armaments factories. And although it bounced back from the first conflict to around 1,040 (4%), it never recovered from the ravages of World War II and the long period of rationing that...

canning

canning   Reference library

Katarzyna J. Cwiertka and Ralph Hancock

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,267 words

...the recipe should have worked. The decisive step forward into the era of successful bottling and canning of foods was not taken until the beginning of the 19th century, when the Frenchman Nicolas appert perfected a method of bottling which won the approval of the French government and was described in his book L’Art de conserver ( 1810 ). An English translation appeared in 1811 , and an American edition in 1812 . Appert’s technique was as follows. Food of any type—meats, soups, fruits, and vegetables—was placed in a stout wide-mouthed jar, and this...

phylloxera

phylloxera   Reference library

Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,205 words
Illustration(s):
1

...social effects. In France, for example, almost 2.5 million ha/6.2 million acres of vineyards were destroyed, the aphid making no distinction between the vineyards of the most famous châteaux and those of humble peasants. For individual French vine-growers from the late 1860s, the sight of their vineyards dying literally before their eyes was particularly traumatic, although the epidemic soon spread elsewhere. Phylloxera invasion had a major social and economic impact, involving national governments and local committees, and requiring international...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

Andrés Rosberg

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
6,544 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Juan Domingo Perón came to power in 1943 he appealed directly to the workers with promises of rapid industrialization, better working conditions, and organized, government-controlled unions. For a while Argentina’s fortunes revived, but in the mid 1950s Perón and his ambitious and charismatic wife Eva were deposed by the military. From then on a succession of opportunistic military governments led the country into spiralling decline. The urban masses created an unprecedented market for wine so that quantity not quality became the imperative. Most producers...

port

port   Reference library

Richard Mayson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
5,935 words

...is under vine. In common with most of the north of Portugal, the region is fragmented into tiny holdings of which 142,000 were registered with the Casa do Douro, the official body set up in 1932 to represent the growers. Over 80% of these holdings are less than 0.5 ha/1.2 acres in size and a mere 0.01% have an area greater than 30 ha/74 acres. The development of the Douro Superior has caused a serious imbalance and brought a dramatic reduction in the price of grapes for Douro wine. Many growers, especially in the steeper Baixo Corgo region, have been...

California

California   Reference library

Thomas Pinney, Bruce Cass, Linda Murphy, Bruce Cass, and Linda Murphy

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
7,537 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Vitis girdiana are unfit for wine). For the next eighty years the Franciscans’ mission grape remained the basis of California wine-growing, which passed from the missions to small growers as the mission lands were secularized under the newly independent Mexican government beginning in 1822 . After the US annexation of Alta California in 1847 , and the discovery of gold in 1848 , wine-growing spread throughout the state. California’s fame as a new wine region spread even as far as North Caucasus ( see russia ). Following the gold rush of ...

Bordeaux

Bordeaux   Reference library

Hanneke Wilson, Edmund Penning-Rowsell, and Jancis Robinson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
6,069 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the beginning of the 18th century. The simultaneous trade war between Britain and France led to ever-increasing duties on French wines and the Anglo-Portuguese Methuen Treaty of 1703 . In return for a Portuguese promise to admit British woollen goods in perpetuity, the British government agreed that duty on French wines should never be less than 50% higher than on the wines of Portugal (and, in fact, Spain). Officially, British wine imports from Bordeaux declined sharply but smuggling must have been rife, to judge from the prevalence of bordeaux in the...

Pickling

Pickling   Reference library

Lucy Norris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from fermentation, citrus juice, and vinegar add flavor but also discourage the growth of harmful microorganisms. Food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism) and Escherichia coli , cannot survive in extreme environments—for example, at pH 2.6 to 4.0. Refrigeration and freezer storage slow bacteria, often killing them. Canning or processing pickle jars in a hot-water bath with a temperature of 160°F to 180°F for ten to twenty minutes also kills bad bacteria. Airtight containers prevent oxidization and the growth of molds in...

Fish oils

Fish oils   Reference library

The Oxford Book of Health Foods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...or 0.45g daily, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as part of a healthy lifestyle, helps maintain heart health. ’ Important caveats to the use of the claim are that it relates only to very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (of chain length 20 carbons or above) including EPA, and DHA, and not all long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (which have chain lengths of less than 20). The ratio of EPA and DHA should reflect that which occurs naturally in oily fish' and include the statement that ‘ The Government...

Labeling

Labeling   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on the number of calories consumed per day; the reference is set at 2,000 calories, chosen so because it approximates the caloric requirements for postmenopausal women, the demographic at the highest risk for excessive intake of calories and fat. Amounts less than 0.5 g are rounded to 0 g. For instance, if a product contains 0.45 g of trans fat per serving, and the package contains six servings, the label would show 0 g of trans fat, even though the product actually contains a total of 2.7 g of trans fat. Because of current public health recommendations,...

Lager

Lager   Reference library

Peter LaFrance, Peter LaFrance, Peter LaFrance, and Peter LaFrance

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...can be made in only two ways: special enzymes to convert unfermentable dextrin (at 4.1 calories per gram) to fermentable sugars that will convert to alcohol, or just add water. The United States government has yet to step in and legislate what brewers might call light beer. Canadian regulations specify that light beer, ale, stout, porter, and malt liquor must have 3.2 to 4 percent alcohol by volume content. The Association of Brewers’ 2011 Beer Style Guidelines states that, “These beers are extremely light colored, light in body, and high in carbonation....

Dairy

Dairy   Reference library

Linda Murray Berzok and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...which at high levels was said to put people at greater risk of coronary artery disease. The message was reinforced by private health organizations, such as the American Heart Association, and eventually, the government as well. In the early 1960s, Americans began replacing whole-milk products with low-fat versions containing between 0.5 percent and 2 percent milk fat. The greatest change took place between 1967 and 1994 , when milk consumption dropped by more than 25 percent. In 1994 Americans drank only 19.1 gallons per person—less than the amount they...

Obesity

Obesity   Reference library

Linda Murray Berzok and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Overweight had by then been linked to increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. Based on little scientific evidence, private health organizations—including the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association—began to condemn dietary fat as the culprit for adverse health consequences and weight. They recommended cutting back fat to no more than one-third of daily calories. By the late 1970s the government had added its sanction to the low-fat message, promoting a diet based...

Sustainability

Sustainability   Reference library

Christina Bronsing, Carolyn Dimitri, and Meryl Rosofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Genetically Modified Foods ; Organic Food .] Bibliography Agricultural Marketing Service. “ Farmers Market Growth: 1994–2011 .” http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateS&leftNav=WholesaleandFarmersMarket&page=WFMFarmersMarketGrowth&description=Farmers%20Market%20Growth&acct=frmrdirmkt . Altieri Miguel A. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture , 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Berry, Wendell . Bringing It to the Table: On Farming and Food , with an introduction by Michael Pollan . Berkeley,...

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